Tuesday, December 25, 2007

Wednesday, November 14, 2007


This Blog is dedicated to
My parents,
Sri.K.R.Yegya Swami Iyer and Srimathi Vedambal
My husband
Sri.K.S.Meenakshi Sundaram



Chapter I
Introduction 1-8

Chapter II
A study of kritis 9-40

Chapter III
A study of other compositions- 41-54
Svarajathi and Varna

Chapter IV
A study of the compositions with
multiple versvarajatsions 55-69

Chapter V
Discussions 70-77
Conclusion 78
Bibiliography 79-82
Appendix I 83-104
Appendix II 105-108

R.Panchapakesan, B.Sc., B.L.,
PHONE : 2703955
Seethalakshmi Ramaswami College,

On the occasion of the releasing function of a book “Syamasastri and his
descendents” and CD “Kamakshi Prabhavan” by Dr.Y.Saradhambal, Reader,
Dept. of Music of our college, I send my Best Wishes and Blessings for the Success
of this function.
May Goddess Akilandeswari Bless Dr. Saradhambal, with many more
Managing Trustee &

Vice - Chancellor

The work of Dr. Y. Saradhambal, (Reader, Department of Music, Seethalakshmi Ramasamy College, Tiruchirappalli), “Syama Sastry and his Descendents”, is a valuable contribution to the carnatic music students and scholars. She has analysed the compositions of Syama Sastry,Subbaraya Sastry and Annasamy Sastry in respect of structure, Ragas, Talas, rhetorical beauties, etc. She has taken efforts to consult the performers besides musicologists along with written sources available. The analysis is scientifically done, presenting the various views of the scholars and performers of a few compositions of Syama Sastry. Subbaraya Sastry and Annasamy Sastry have been influenced by the compositions of Syama Sastry, but they have not duplicated or copied them. In short, it is useful for researchers, teachers, students and rasikas.
PHONE : (Off.) 2407048 (Res.) 2407070 Fax : 2407032 E.mailL vc@bdu.ac.in Website: www.bdu.ac.in

Chairperson, Clock Tower Buildings,
School of Fine and Performing Arts Chepauk, Chennai - 600 005.
Professor and Head Ph : 044 25368778 Ext. 277
Department of Indian Music & Fax : 91 44 25366693
Member of the Syndicate

Date : 20.7.2007
Dr. Y.Saradhambal has worked on “A Study of the Compositions of Syama Sastri, his Disciples and Descendents” for her Ph.D under my guidance. She was a P.G. student of this department and has also completed her Doctorate. Her research is a very good Documentation
and Analytical Study of the style of Sri Syama Sastri one among the celebrated Musical Trinity. I am happy that her thesis is being published along with a CD where she has sung some compositions of the Composer and his Descendents. She is a good Researcher, a DedicatedTeacher and an Able Vocalist.
I wish her all the best.
Dr. M.Premeela

Smt. Vidya Shankar Phone : 2847 5543
No.8, 7th Lane,
Dr. Radhakrishnan Road,
Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004.

Dr. Y.Sharadambhal has done a commendable job in her research on ‘Composition of Syama Sastri and his descendents in her thesis for Ph.D degree of the Madras University. I congragulate her dedication and sincerity apparent in the various chapters. This book is a valuable addition to students teachers and researchers. I wish her success in all her endevours.
Vidya Shankar

M.A., M.Litt., Ph.D (India), Ph.D (USA)
Director, Prof. Emeritus Music Dept. Madras University
Tel : (044) 2498-1090 Fax : (044) 2467-1792

The work of Dr. Y. Saradambal, Syama Sasthri and His descendents is a valuable contribution to the Carnatic music students and scholars. Dr. Y. Saradambal has done her Ph.D on this topic on “Syama Sasthri his Descendents and disciples” on which this book is based. She
has made an exhaustive study on the compositions which has not been done as an academic study except a few articles. About the descendents of Syama Sasthri not much material is available but the author has taken pains to bring out their contribution in detail.
Dr. Saradambal has taken efforts to consult the performers besides musicologists along with written sources available. The analysis is scientifically done presenting the various views of the scholars and performers of a few compositions of Syama Sasthri. The quotations of the present scholars’ views are given which is unique in her book. The notations and recording and the long bibliography reveal her strenuous effort to write the thesis of her Ph.D and this work is commendable work on Syama Sasthri and his descendents.
With Very Best Wishes
S.A.K. Durga

Dr. R.Kausalya
Principal (Retd.)
Tamilnadu Government Music College,
Tiruvaiyaru - 613 203.

The unique feature of Indian Music is its Raga system. Ragas live through the Composition in variety of Musical Forms. In India Compositions are not merely composed. They are the Divine experiences of Vaggeyakaras. According to Prof. P.Sambamurthi it was a combined Datu Matu Stream. Their knowlege in Literature, Music, different Languages and branches of Sastras are evident in those compositions. Decorative Angas enhanced the beauty of them. Saturated in Bakti Bhava and clothed in suitable Ragas they are living through the ages - in some cases not even knowing the name of the composer. Of the many such vaggeyakaras the Carnatic Music Trinity and their contribution are noteworthy. The eldest among them is Syama Sastry. Three generations of the same family, Syama Sastry, his vaggeyakaras. Dr. (Smt) Y.Saradambal with her strong Practical knowledge has analysed the compositions of Syama Sastry, Subbaraya Sastry and Annasamy Sastry in respect of structure, Ragas, Talas rhetorical beauties etc. She has discussed the variations in patantaram differences in opinion regarding the Ragas and Talas of the compositions and even the authorship with examples. She has analysed even the pauses found in the compositions. She has not left even single aspect in their compositions.
She is a sincere Music Teacher with a standing experience of long years in the Music Department of Seethalakshmi Ramaswamy College. Her long teaching experience has made her to go deep in to their compositions in detail and she also makes us to understand it. She has taken pains to collect all the available publications on them, Hand Written Manuscripts recorded cassettes etc. She has also met Scholars and Musicians and gathered informations. She has rightly established that their compositions though identical in approach are unique in their own way. No doubt that Subbaraya Sastry and Annasamy Sastry have been influenced by the compositions of Syama Sastry, but they have not duplicated or copied them. The appendix of the book is a treasure house for the future researchers in the subject.
In short the present is useful for researchers, teachers, students and rasika’s alike. I congratulate Dr. (Smt) Y. Saradambal for this successful work and wish her many more such works for the benefits of Music world.
(Dr. R. Kausalya)
Jatavallabar House
6/78 Thillaisthanam, Thanjavur Dt. 613 203


My sincere thanks are due to Sri R.Pancapakesan, Secretary, Seethalakshmi Ramaswami College, Trichy, who permitted me to publish my Ph.D thesis in a form of a book, and had bestowed his wishes in his foreword.
I extend my thanks to Dr Ms .K. Shenbagavalli, Principal, Seethalakshmi Ramaswami College,
Trichy for her continuous guidance given to me in publishing the book.
I thank the authorities of University of Madras, for permitting me to publish my Ph.D thesis.
I am grateful to Dr.M.Ponnavaiko, Vice-Chancellor, Bharathidasan University Trichy being kind enough to give foreword for my book.
I am very much indebted to my research guide Dr. M. Premeela, Professor and Head of the Department of Music, University of Madras, been a source of inspiration during my research work, as well as in this publishing moment.
I thank my guru Smt. M. Ramani, retired teacher and Sri S.V.Parthasarathy retired music director All India Radio Trichy and a senior vidwan from whom I have learned many songs, which were useful for this research work.
My sincere thanks are due to Sri S.Rajah, the direct descendent of Syama Sastri, who had furnished many useful informations regarding the three composers of their family. He also gave rare songs from his collections and the two unpublished songs of Annasvami Sastri from the notebooks of Syama Sastri ÉÉ.
My sincere thanks are due to Smt Vidya Shankar who had shared her days of discipleship under Syama Sastri ÉÉ the great grandson of Syama Sastri she has also thrown light about some of the rare composition of Syama Sastri. I also thank her for the foreword given to my book. I also thank Dr.S.A.K.Durga and Dr.R.Kausalya for providing a suitable foreword for my book.
My heartfelt regards are due to my husband Mr. K.S.Meenakshi Sundaram who has been the source and sprit of my work and helped me in every stage. I thank him whole-heartedly for his support extended in the publication of this book.
I am indebted for the encouragement extended by Dr.N.Ramanathan, for the publication of this book. During my course I had collected many books from the Libraries of the Department of Music, University of Madras and Music Academy. I thank the authorities of the libraries who had helped me in the search of those books and assisted me in collecting materials from the books and for necessary assistance provided by them. I owe my sincere thanks to Sri.N.V.Subramanium, President Saraswathy Vaggeyakara Trust, and many other senior artists Vidwan Sri.S.Rajam, Sri.T.K.Govindarao and others who had given the songs of the composers in audio tapes.
I thank my mother in law Mrs.T.R.Ramalakshmi who had helped me in many ways. I also thank my colleagues who assisted and helped me during the course my research work..I thank my co artists as well as the production team who had extended their support in production of the CD, which is released with this book.
Last but not the least I owe my sincere prayers to Goddess Bangaru Kamakshi of Tanjore for the success of this book.

ASR - Adi Sangita Ratnavali
CSS SuS and AS - Compositions of Syama Sastri, Subbaraya Sastri and Annasvami Sastri
GGP - Gayaka Gayanijana Parijatham
GK - Gharbapuri Kirtanas
GL - Gayakalocanam
GM - Gnamrtamu
GP - Gayakaparijatham
GS - Gayakasiddhanjanamu
GVV - Ganavidyavinodhini
HW I - Handwritten Note Book I [with notation]
HW II - Handwritten Note Book II [without notation]
JMA - Journal of Music Academy
KMM - Kritimanimalai
PA - Prathama Abyasapustakamu
PI - Personal Interview
SK - Sangita Kalanidhi
SKM - Syama Sastri Kirtanamala
SS - Sangita Sudhambudhi
SS and ASC - SyamaSastri and Annasvami Sastri’s Compositions
SSAU - Syama Sastrigalin Ariya Uruppadigal
SSC III - Syama Sastri’s Compositions – Part III
SSK - Syama Sastri Krtulu [T.S.Parthasarathi ]
SSKM - Syama Sastri Krtugalu [M.R.Sankaramurthy]
SSKN - Syama Sastri Krtulu [N.C.Parthasarathy and Dwaraka Parthasarathy]
SSS - Sangita Sudha Sangrahamu
SSSS - Sangita Sarvartha Sara Sangrahamu
SS and SuSC - Syama Sastri and Subbaraya Sastri’s Compositions
SSP - Sangita Sampradaya Pradarsini
SSPS - Sangita Svaraprastara Sagaramu
SuS and ASC - Subbaraya Sastri and Annasvami Sastri’s Compositions
SVD - Sangita Vidya Darpanam
SVT - Sarasvati Vaggeyakara Trust
Abhyasa gana - Compositions forming a part of initial training
Akara - A syllable forming the text of the song
Aksara - Single count of the tala
Anga - 1. Section within an avarta of the tala
2. Section comprising a composition
Anupallavi - 2nd section of a musical form
Avarta - The last section of the krti
Carana - The last section of the krti
Citttasvara - A passage of text in the song consist of sa ri ga syllables
Ettugada pallavi - The refrain line in the carana of a varna
Ettugada svara - The svara passages that followed Ettugada pallavi in a varna.
Janta - Double svara
Janya raga - A raga that is derived from the parent raga
Jaru - The sliding form
Krti - A musical form
Madhyamakalasahitya - A musical passage where the syllable of the text are relatively closer to each other suggesting a quickening of the tempo
Madhyasthayi - Middle register
Mandrasthayi - Lower register
Mudra - A word in a composition that acts as a ‘stamp’ to denote the composer,
place, name of the raga, patron etc.
Muktayisvara - A passage of svara syllables that succeeds an anupallavi in a varna
Pallavi - First section in musical form
Sahitya - Text or lyric in a song
Sancara - Characteristic movement of phrases in a raga
Sangati - Variations used in the melodic Movement
Sisya - Disciple
Solkattu - the vocal renunciation of jati Syllables
Svarajati - A musical form
Svaraksara - A feature in a song where the syllable of the text is identical or similar to the
correspondent svara syllable
Svarasahitya - Literally svara syllables and meaningful text, refers to each svara syllable having
a corresponding syllable of text of identical duration
Tarasthayi - Upper register
Tisragati - The gait of the composition in such a way that each unit of tala as three
melodic pulses
Varna - A musical form
Vilomakrama - Reverse order
Visesa prayoga - Special usage of phrases in a raga


The opportunity I had in learning a very few compositions of Syama Sastri, two of Subbaraya
Sastri, during my music career compared to other composotions, has kindled my urge to search for learning more compositions of them. I had learnt some compositions from my guru Smt. M.Ramani, who is a disciple of Dr.S.Ramanathan, renowned musician and musicologist. The difficulty I had in mastering these few kritis and svarajathis only after a long practice made me to think over about the other compositions of Syama Sastri and his descendents. I had to search over for them in many directions and through this search I had found out that the kritis of Syama Sastri are difficult in structure with different tala dimentions, and in the deliniation of the ragas. This may be reason for their lesser popularity among the artists. I could find different versions of the songs in the few available publications. The main source is the three books
published by Smt. Vidya Shankar, which contain the songs of Syama Sastri in large number. There were also patantara differences among the artists regarding raga and tala for some songs. These desparities were the sources for my research work at the Ph.D level. This book aims to make a study of the compositions of syama sastri and his descendents, Subbaraya Sastri and Annasvami Sastri. Eventhough the main thrust of this book will be on the songs of Syama Sastri,
the study will strive to bringout the common and distinct charecteristics in the compositional style of all the three. In the search fo the compositions they could be obtained through various sources like written books, audio tapes from eminent vidwans and scholars like T.K.Govinda Rao, Calcutta S.Krishnamurthy, Sri.S.Rajah, a direct descendent of Syama Sastri and others.
In this book the study is extended to five chapters. The chronological survey of the availability of the compositions undertook in the introduction plays a vital rold through out the book. The kritis belonging to the earlier two periods are analysed in the second chapter and the analysis confirms the kriti format of Syama Sastri would be in the same pattern as found. The style is confirmed regarding their structure, raga, tala and nature of sahithya. Based on this style the similarities and differences found in the compositions of the other two are pointed out. The third chapter gives a clear picture of svarajathis and varnas while the fourth one is focussed upon the multiple versions of some of the compositions. The fifth chapter discusses about the later compositions, entity of new ragas, talas and forms are brought forward. Songs with doubtful
authorship are also analysed. Finally, it is derived that the kriti format as suggested by Syama Sastri, must be the same as established in the earlier kritis, in slow medium tempo with an elevation of the sahithya bhava and ragabhava. It is also proved that the songs of Subbaraya Sastri revealed this style very closely with some new dimensions, while Annasvami Sastri’s songs reflect the style to a certain extent but have more impact of the style of post Tyagaraja period.

This thesis aims at a critical study of the compositions of Syâmâ Sâstri [1762 – 1827], one
Sâstri [1803 – 1862], son and disciple of Syâmâ Sâstri, Annâsvâmi Sâstri, grandson of Syâmâ Sâstri, The three great composers, Tyâgarâja (1759-1847) Muttusvami Dikshitar (1775-1835) and Syâmâ Sâstri (1763-1827) are by common consent called the Musical Trinity of South India.

Syâmâ Sâstri came of the community known amongst the Tamil-speaking Brahmins of Southern
India as the Vada-desattu Vadamal. His ancestors originally lived in Cumbum Cumbattar. They later migrated to Kâñchipuram in Chengalpat District. They were not archakas (temple priests by profession. Tradition has it that Brahma once performed a penance at Kâñchipuram and at the conclusion of the same saw the Jyoti (divine light) of Devi, which almost blindfolded him. Brahma offered puja to the Deity and the idol was then called Bañgâru Kâmâkshi . This is the idol that is now kept in the Kâmâksh i Amman Temple in Tanjore. It is recorded that Sage Durvasa amongst other Maharishis performed puja to the Deity. When Âdi Sankarachariyar visited Kâñchipuram, the temple was in a dilapidated condition. He renovated the same and ordered that henceforth there shall be smartha vaidika puja to the Deity. The Jagadguru chose the ancestors of Syâmâ Sâstri for the purpose, as they were well known for their piety and sound learning. After the fall of the kingdom of Vijayanagar in1565 A.D the archakas carried with them the Chaturbhuja Utsava Vigraham also with Bañgâru Kâmâkshi Idol. Wandering through several forests for a period of 28 years they came to Gingee in 1594. Santana Maharajah ruled Gingee at that time. After a stay of 15 years at the Gingee fortress, the archakas traveled southwards. At the forest adjoining Gingee they stayed for 15 years. After staying in Anakkudy for a period of 15 years, they went to Vijayapuram, where they spent another fifteen years. From Vijayapuram they passed through Nagore, Madapuram and Sikkil, staying in each place for a period of five years. They finally came to Tiruvarur where they stayed for a long period of 45 years. The Deity was kept in a special mantapam in Sri Tyâgarâja svami Devasthanam. It was at Tiruvarur that Syâmâ Sâstri was born about the year 1763. Raja Tulaja (1765-1787), the then ruler of Tanjore and obtained his consent to come and stay with his family within the walls of the Tanjore fortress where there was greater protection and security. In the Konkanisvara Svami Kovil in Tanjore, the Deity was kept for five years. From the Nataraja Mantapam of Konkanisvara Svami Temple, Bañgâru Kâmâkshi was taken and kept for three years at the Moolai Hanumar Kovil. Soon a new temple was built and the swarna vigraha was brought and installed there. On the occasion of the Kumbhabhishekam ceremonies the Raja gave Syâmâ Sâstri’s father large freehold estates, including an agraharam and cultivable lands.
Syâmâ Sâstri was born at Tiruvarur in the year 1763, His father was Visvanatha Iyer and his
paternal grandfather was Venkatadri Iyer. The circumstances in which Syâmâ Sâstri’s birth took place are interesting. In another street in Tiruvarur, there lived a devout Brahmin who performed Sri Venkatachalapati Svami Samaradhana on the last Saturday of each month. On one of those occasions an inspired Brahmin called upon Visvanatha Iyer’s wife. The pious woman soon came and the Inspired Brahmin said that in the next year a son would be born to her in the krirthika nakshatra. According to the divine ordaining, she conceived and after a period of ten months she delivered a male child. As the child was born in the krithika nakshatra, the sarman of Venkatasubrahmanya was given. Out of affection however the child was called “Syâmâ Krishna”. The boy was brought up with parental care and affection. In his young age itself he was given a sound education in Sanskrit and Telugu. He learnt the rudiments of music from his maternal uncle, who was not a great musician. When he reached 18 years of age he came over to Tanjore along with his parents. Syama’s ancestors were not musicians; nor did they encourage the study and practice of music in their families. Even as the divine Minstrel Narada came in the guise of a sanyasi and initiated Tyâgarâja Chidambaranâtha Yôgi came to Muttusvami Dikshitar to initiate him into the secrets of Nija Sangita so also a sanyasi in the person of Sangita Svami came to initiate him into the hitherto unknown mysteries of tâïa and râgâ. Sangita Svami was an adept in the art of Music and Bharata Sastra. At the invitation of Visvanatha Iyer one day the Svamiji had his biksha there. The Svamiji at a moment’s glance noticed that the young person had rare musical talents. He immediately predicted the future greatness of Syâmâ. Sâstri and Sangita Svami bestowed special attention on the musical training of Syama and led him to the hitherto unknown mysteries of the râgâ and tâïa prastâras.
At the time of the commencement of his career, Syâmâ Sâstri was well placed in life, his father
having received large gifts of land from the Maratha Rajah of Tanjore. He was thus above want, after his father, the duty of performing puja to Bañgâru Kâmâkshi devolved upon him. Syâmâ Sâstri soon acquired a great name and fame as an expert musician and composer. As he was an intensely pious person, on Fridays and other sacred days he would sit down in prayer and in the height of devotion, tears used to roll down his eyes. During those inspired moments, he sang many melodious songs. Syâmâ Sâstri had a majestic appearance and a commanding personality. He had a beautiful complexion and always wore a pure white, slightly lace-bordered cloth. Unlike his two illustrious contemporaries, he had few disciples and even to those few he did not care to teach all his compositions with the same zeal, interest and enthusiasm. Tyâgarâja and he were goods friends and occasionally he used to go to Tyâgarâja’s house in Tiruvaiyaru. Once, a friend of his invited him, to go to Pudukottai. An unknown person came to him and requested him to go to Sri Minâkshi Sannidhanam at Madurai and sing a few krtis in her praise. On his way he composed nine krtis in praise of Sri MinâkshiAmman and called them “Navaratna-malika” the garland of nine gems. At Madurai, he was received with temple honors. He sang the Navaratna-malika before the Goddess and received her blessings. During the reign of Sarabhoji, there came to Tanjore a musician from Bobbili called Kçsavayya. He was so puffed to himself the title of “Bhooloka Chapa Chutti”. On his way he went to several Samasthanams and challenged the vidwans there. Invariably he won in all the musical contests. In course of time he came to Tanjore and one day went to the Samasthana and boldly challenged the vidwans there. To save the reputation of Tanjore, the palace vidwans were obliged to accept the challenge from the
Bobbili musician. They counseled amongst themselves and at last resolved that the only person who could successfully deal a blow to the Andhra musician and save the honour of Tanjore was Syâmâ Sâstri. A day was soon fixed for the contest and on the day prior to this; the palace vidwans went in a body to Syâmâ Sâstri’s house and acquainted him with the situation. After the palace vidwans left, Syâmâ Sâstri sat alone and pondered deeply over the matter. After the evening prayers, he went and shut himself up in the temple and prayed the goddess that he might be successful in the next day’s ordeal. He sang on that occasion the famous kritiin Chintâmani râgâ, Âdi tâïa “Devi brôva Samaya mide”. Next day he left his home for the palace. Kçsavayya forthwith tuned his tambura and started singing a râgâ. He followed it up with tana.
When it came to the turn of Syâmâ Sâstri to sing, he not only sang similar tanas without the least effort presenting newer aspects of this branch. Kçsavayya was easily humbled. He took leave and went out of the place. While young, one-day Syama’s father left him in charge of the temple and went out on some business. At that time a devotee came to perform archana to Sri Kâmâkshi. Young Syâmâ Sâstri recited the mantras distinctly in a melodious manner and in râgâs appropriate to the time. The devotee was so pleased, that he went out forthwith, purchased a costly shawl and presented the same to him. Syâmâ Sâstri was an adept in the Jyotisha Sastra (astrology). A friend of Syâmâ Sâstri once went to one of the astrologers attached to the Tanjore Samasthanam and giving his horoscope, requested him to tell his future. The astrologer threw at him bombshell by saying that his end was drawing near. He came weeping to Syâmâ Sâstri. The latter just glanced at his horoscope and smilingly replied: “Do not feel worried, my dear friend. You will live for ten more years” This turned out to be true. It was his fortune to possess a devoted wife. On the day following her demise, friends, relatives, admirers and disciples of Syâmâ Sâstri poured into his house to offer him their condolences on his sad bereavement. To all of them he was euphemistically remarking “Sâga anjunâl; setta ârunâl “. By this he meant that there were only five days more for him to live in this world; on the sixth day after the demise of his wife (the day predicted by him) he shook off his mortal coil. Thus passed away the immortal composer of Tanjore in his 64th year in the 1827.Syâmâ Sâstri had two sons;-Pañju Sâstri and Subbarâya Sâstri. Pañju Sâstri became the temple archaka after his father’s demise and carried on the duties well.

Syâmâ Sâstri’s second son Subbarâya Sâstri proved a worthy son of his father. He was born in
the year 1803. He attained great scholarship in Tamil, Sanskrit, Telugu and Music. He had his early training in music from his father and also became proficient in Tamil, Telugu and Sanskrit in young age. Later on he had the fortune of learning under Saint Tyâgarâja. He had the opportunity of listening to the Maharastra singers like Merugosvami who were Tanjore Samasthânam vidwans at that time. He was also an expert in playing the instruments Violin and sarinda. After the death of Syâmâ Sâstri, his elder brother Pañju Sâstrigal took the career of his father as an archaka at Tanjore and Subbarâya Sâstri took the career as a musician. Since he had no issues he adopted Annâsvâmi sâstri, the third son of Pañju Sâstri. His wife hailed from Kâñchipuram and Subbarâya Sâstri along with his adopted son who was seven years then moved on to Kâñchipuram immediately after the demise of his father in1834. He stayed in Kañchipuram for more than ten years. Then the family started for Tirupathy from there but due to ill health they could not do so. They came to Triplicane and stayed there for only one year. At that time he composed the Kriti “Ninnu Sçviñcina” in Yadukulakâmbhôji râgâ in praise of Sri Parthasarathy Svami of Triplicane. Then he was appointed as the Samasthana Vidwan in the Udayarpalayam Zamin and he settled there till his death. Subbarâya Sâstri visited Madurai several times and popularized his songs in the Minâkshi Amman temple. Once he was presented with a tambura with uplifted yâli, which was preserved by his son Annâsvâmi sâstri. He gave training in Violin to his son, Kachi sâstri, Fiddle Rangachary and Violinist Balu. It seems that both Subbarâya Sâstri and Annâsvâmi sâstri used to perform Violin duet performances. Subbarâya Sâstri also taught vocal music to Tanjore Kâmâkshi, the mother of veena Dhanammal. He was a pious man and on the day of his death he felt conscious of his demise. After performing Sandhyavandanam he poured water on the floor saying “Dattam” and expressed that he would live only for two more hours. The Zamindar and many people gathered on hearing the news and the Zamin enquired about his last wish. Subbarâya sâstri expressed that he had no desire as the Goddess Kâmâkshi blessed him. After a very few minutes he passed away peacefully in the year 1862 A.D.
He began to compose compositions using the Mudra”Kumara”. He had imbibed the style of his
father as well as his guru. He also had the chance of composing compositions in the style of Muthusvami Diksitar as he had the opportunity of hearing the music of the latter. He is said to have composed two Krtis. Venkaþaoeaila in HamîrKalyâni râgâ and Ninnu Sçviñcina in Yadukulakâmbhôji râgâ in the long drawn out Vilambitakâla. He had composed combining the styles of his father and his guru that is with sangathis like Tyâgarâja and with svara sâhitya and svarâakºara like his father. It is said that once Subbarâya Sâstri got appreciation for his Kriti “Ninnuvinagatigana” in Kalyâòi râgâ from his guru while he sang the Kritiin the Pañchanadeeswarar temple at Tiruvaiyaru.

Annâsvâmi sâstri also known as AnnaSâstri was the grand on of Syâmâ Sâstri, Third son of
Syâmâ Sâstri’s first son Pañju Sâstri and adopted son of Subbarâya Sâstri. He was born exactly two months after the demise of Syâmâ Sâstri in the year 1827. Though he was christened as “SyâmâKrishna” he was addressed as Anna affectionately. He learnt vocal and violin under his father and they used to perform violin duets. He in turn taught violin to his son Úyâmâ Sâstri II. Sundârambâl, mother of Veena Dhanammâl, and Tacchur Chinna Singaracharulu. It seems that when Annâsvâmi sâstri taught the Kriti “Nannubrochutaku” of Subbarâya Sâstri in Tôdi râgâ, he punned on the sâhitya “namma Kâmakshammâ Mâyamma” and also appreciated the rendition of Sundarammal. Annâsvâmi sâstri used to sing the svarâsâhithya apart of the Kritiin the manner of a duo, one singing the svara part and the other the sâhitya part simultaneously. Melakkarai Govindan and Krishnan Pillai-two nadhaswaram players had learnt music under Annâsvâmi sâstri. They used to popularize the compositions of Syâmâ Sâstri. Annâsvâmi sâstri was preserving the Tambura presented in the Minâkshi Amman temple at Madurai with great care. After the demise of his father Annâsvâmi sâstri was appointed as the asthana Vidwan of the Udayarpalayam Zamin. He stayed in Madras for sometime this is evident from the fact that he taught music to Chinna Singara Charulu who lived in Madras. He was a composer of high order. Though few in number his compositions includes varòâs, darus and Krtis. They are in Telugu and Sanskrit. Unfortunately the Tambura fell down one day and broke into pieces. With in ten days after this incident Annâsvâmi sâstri passed away at the age of 73 in the year 1900.


The availability of the compositions from the various publications since 1859 to the present day
has been taken up and a survey has been done in a chronological order of the publications. A list of all the available compositions from various sources, dividing the period into three categories on the basis of number of publications available is given in Appendix I. The three periods have been divided as follows:
• From 1859 to 1930
• 1930 to 1970 and
• 1970 onwards.
In the first period various books are found, mostly in Telugu, in which compositions of several
composers are found. Among these the three composers under study are also included. In the second period, there are specific books in which the compositions of Syâmâ Sâstri, Subbarâya Sâstri and Annâsvâmi sâstri alone are published. In the third period, more number of compositions of Syâmâ Sâstri alone is published in some books. The early publications were Sangita Sarvarta Sara Sangrahamu by Vina Ramanuja. Ganamrtamu by T.M.Venkatesa Sâstri and the books Gayaka Parijatham and Gayaka Siddhanjanamu of Taccur Brothers, which were published between 1859 and 1893. Between 1900 and 1920, there were two books each of Subbarama Diksitar [Sangita Sampradaya Pradarsini, Prathama abyasa pusthakamu and Taccur Brothers [Gayakalocanam, Sangita Kâlanidhi], one book each of Venkatasvami Naidu [Sangita Vidya Darpanam], Pammi Arunacala Cetti [Gayaka Gayanijana Parijatam], C.Munusvami [Sangita Sudha Sangrahamu], Nadamuni Pandit [Sangita Svaraprastara Sagaramu] and Vina Basavappa [Gana Vidya Vinodini]. K V Srinivasa Ayyangar had published two books, one in 1924 and another in 1929 [Sangita Rasarnavam and Sangita Sudhambudhi). During this period, twenty-one songs [S.No.1 to 21 Appendix I Chart I] of Syâmâ Sâstri came into vogue by these publications. These songs continue to figure in all the publications of the second and third periods.
In the second period starting from 1930 to 1970 the unpublished notebooks of Syâmâ Sâstri II
along with some other published books, more number of compositions come into the field. Now the total rises up to fifty-two adding thirty-one compositions of Syâmâ Sâstri [S.No.23 to 53 Appendix I Chart I]. The two books belonging to this period, which had added more number of compositions of Syâmâ Sâstri, are the three books of Vidya Shankar and Krtimanimalai of Ranga Ramanuja Ayyangar. In the third period, after 1970, the third edition of the book Syâmâ Sâstri’s compositions of Vidya Shankar plays a vital role in introducing twenty new compositions making the total number seventy two.
Subbarâya Sâstri’s compositions are seen in some books belonging to the first period, which
include the three books of Taccur Brothers [G P, GSid, SK] two books of K V Srinivasa Ayyangar
[SRSS] and the books of T M Venkatesa Sâstri [GM], C Munisvami Naidu [SSS] and Pammi Arunacala Cetti [GGP]. There are ten songs totally taken from these books and they are carried in the books of the other periods also. With the arrival of the Handwritten Notebook (HW) of Syâmâ Sâstri II there are two songs added to his credit as can be seen in Appendix I; Chart I. One more song is added through the book of Ranga Ramanuja Ayyangar [KMM] in the case of song number 3 and 11 there is a controversy regarding the authorship.
One daru of Annâsvâmi sâstri is found in GL of Tacchur Brothers. There are twelve compositions of Annâsvâmi sâstri, which are brought to light by H W of Syâmâ Sâstri II for the first time. Among these besides a varnâ in Sri râgâ and krtis in the râgâs Kâmbhôji and Madhyamâvathi, all the other compositions figure in Vidya Shankar’s early publication in 1947 and in the later one in 1998, while these three compositions are also included along with the new composition in the Kalyâni in the book of T.K.Govinda Rao belonging to the third period.
Thus the chronological survey reveals the fact that in the early period before 1930 there were only twenty one compositions of Syâmâ Sâstri, ten of Subbarâya Sâstri and one of Aòòâsvâmi sâstri. In the second period the HW of Syâmâ Sâstri II plays a vital role of introducing seventeen new songs of Syâmâ Sâstri. [Appendix I – Chart I Serial numbers are: 22 to 29, 31, 34, 36, 38, 41, 43, 47, 50 and 51] and twelve new songs of Aòòâsvâmi sâstri. Only two compositions are added to the credit of Subbarâya Sâstri.
Eleven songs appear for the first time in Vidya Shankar’s publications [Part I, II, III] of the same period. The serial numbers of these songs, as per the Appendix I – Chart I, are 32, 33, 37, 39, 41 44, 45 46, 48, 49 and 52. Except the song number 39, all the other songs figure in the publications of the second period. There are three more, which find a place in the book of Ranga Ramanuja Ayyangar [KMM] for the first time [30, 35 and 40]. Though they figure in some other books, they do not find a place in Vidya Shankar’s publications [Part I, II, III]. Thus in the second period along with the twenty one songs of the first period we come to know about thirty one new compositions. In the third period twenty new compositions are thrown into light by the latest publication SSC – Edition III of Vidya Shankar [53 to 72 Appendix I; Chart I] and they are carried over by T.K.Govinda Rao in his book CSSA. Taking into consideration all the three periods we arrive at a figure of 72 compositions of Syâmâ Sâstri. No additions were made in the compositions of Subbarâya Sâstri, in the third period but there is one new composition of Annâsvâmi sâstri found in the book of T.K.Govinda Rao. There were no new additions in the third period regarding the compositions of the above mentioned composers excepting Syâmâ Sâstri and Annâsvâmi sâstri as is made clear from this chronological survey.


Through this survey the râgâs and tâïas handled by Syâmâ Sâstri in the three stages are also known [Appendix I Chart 2 & 3]. The general survey of the râgâs handled by all the three composers will show the fact that they are either melakarta râgâs of a very few number of melas or janyas of them. Syâmâ Sâstri has handled three melas while Subbarâya Sâstri and Annâsvâmi Sâstri two. The remaining forty-two râgâs are derivative or janya râgâs.


The tâïas handled by Syâmâ Sâstri as found in the compositions of the early period are only three (Âdi, Câpu and Rûpakam). The introduction of Triputa and Khaòda jhampa are found in the second period and only in the third period use of more tâïas like Tisramatya, Catuhsra Ata, Kanda Matya are found along with the other tâïas in the compositions of Syâmâ Sâstri. It is striking to note that only Subbarâya Sâstri has used Câpu tâïa in his compositions. Both Subbarâya Sâstri and Annâsvâmi sâstri use Âdi and Rûpakam, Khaòda Eka is used by Annâsvâmi sâstri. Annâsvâmi sâstri had composed his varnâs in both Âdi and Ata tâlas.


Regarding the variety of compositions of Syâmâ Sâstri we find 3 svarajati’s a varnâ and krtis in
the first stage. The krtis with a regular format is found in both first and second stages along with one more varòâ in the second stage. It is only in the third stage that we come across krtis with different structures regarding the number of âvartas, melodic structure of the Caraòas (in different dhâtus and with madhyamakâla sâhitya) two more varòâs and new compositions in the name of gitas without the division of añgâs as pallavai, anupallavai and Caranas but with sections or khandikas [Appendix I Chart IV]. Changes are not found in the compositions of the others.


There were compositions in Sanskrit and Telugu of Syâmâ Sâstri in the first period while Tamil is added in the second and more numbers of compositions are found in Sanskrit in the third period. While Subbarâya Sâstri’s compositions are found in Telugu, Annâsvâmi sâstri had used Sanskrit in most of his krtis and there are some in Telugu (Appendix I Chart I)


In the first chapter survey of the compositions of Syâmâ Sâstri, Subbarâya Sâstri and Annâsvâmi Sâstri is made on the background of their availability in the publications. Mention has been made of the râgâs and tâïas used in the compositions of Syâmâ Sâstri according to their period of appearance. The râgâs and Tâlas included in the compositions of Syâmâ Sâstri in the later periods are thus pointed out. Mention has been made of the râgâs and tâïas handled by the other four composers also. Detailed analysis of the compositons begins from this chapter. It takes up a study of the kritis of Syâmâ Sâstri., Subbarâya Sâstri, and Annâsvâmi Sâstri. The kritis taken up for analysis belong to the first two periods (i.e. 1859 to 1970) and the analysis is mainly based on the early publications prior to 1930 and the HW of Syâmâ Sâstri II.
The structure of a kriti is primarily defined in terms of the sectios constituting it and they are
Pallavi, Anupallavi and Caraòa . Kritis may have more than one Caraòa sung to the same tune (dhatu).The kritis of Syâmâ Sâstri are normally found with three Caraòa s. Yet the kriti “Nannubrôvu” in Lalitâ râgâ is found with four Caraòa s and the kriti ‘Dçvibrôva’ in Cintâmani is found without the anupallavi section. Normally, the duration of âvartas in âdi tâïa kritis are two-two-four for the pallavi, anupallavi and Caraòa respectively. With the addition of ciþþasvara or svara sahitya the number of âvartas of the anupallavi or Caraòa will be increased for another two âvartas respectively. 4-4-8 or 8-8-8 is the organisation of the duration of âvartas in rupaka tâïa. The kriti “Marivçre” in Ânandhabhairavi râgâ in Misracâpu tâïa is found with 8-8-16 and also with a ciþþasvara for another eight âvartas. The kriti “Sañkari” in Saveri râgâ is seen in with the following format 8+8+8 and a ciþþasvara for eight âvartas. Most of the kritis in misra laghu or misra câpu tâïa are found with the pattern 8+8+16 and only in some kritis the additional element svarâsahitya is found for another eight âvartas taking into consideration the svara part and sahitya part as a single unit. The music settings of the three añgâs are separate and all the Caraòa s are sung to the same dhatu in the compositions of Úyâmâ Sâstri. Only in rare cases for example in the kriti “Marivçre” in Ânandhabhairavi and “Brôvavamma” in Mâòji râgâ the last two lines of the Caraòa are sung to the same dhatu as that of the anupallavi. Normally slow medium tempo is employed in the kritis set in âdi tâïa (Irandu) two kâïai with profusion of words without any intermediary ending of the words. All the añgâs will be set in the same tempo but in two kritis we find the number of words is increased in the añgâs; anupallavi and Caraòa in “Kanakaoeaila” in PunnnagaVarâïi and in the Caraòa in the kriti “Mâyamma” Âhiri. This increases the tempo of the añgâs as if they are in madhyamakâïa though infact they are not. The kritis of Subbarâya Sâstri has the following structure. Pallavi and Anupallavi have equal length while the Caraòa comprises the combined length of both. Most of his compositions had three Caraòa s and all the añgâs are sung to different dhâtus as found in most of the kritis of Syâmâ Sâstri. Yet in the kriti ‘Minanayana’ in Darbar râgâ the last quarter of the Caraòa is sung as anupallavi while in the kriti ‘Janani’ in Ritigaula râgâ the whole Caraòa is sung in the tune of the pallavi and anupallavi.“Emaninne” in Mukhâri râgâ and “NinnuSçviñcina” in Yadukulakâmbhôji râgâ are the two kritis, which have only one Caraòa. The kriti ‘Venkaþasaila’ in HamîrKalyâòi râgâ has five Caraòa s and ‘Dâïacinavaru’ in Dhanyâsi râgâ has four Caraòa s and both anupallavi and Caraòa are sung in madhyamakâïa in this kriti. Though in many kritis
Subbarâya Sâstri has adopted the slow medium tempo of his father there are two kritis in Vilambita kâïa i.e. slow tempo. They are “Venkaþasaila” in HamîrKalyâòi and “NinnuSçviñcina” in Yadukulakâmbhôji râgâs. Use of dirgha svarâs found in these kritis suggests to the listener that they may reveal the impact of Muttusvami Diksitar, a contemporary of Syâmâ Sâstri. Annâsvâmi Sâstri has composed kriti with only one Caraòa .His kritis are simple in nature. Normally his kritis will have four âvartas in the Caraòa while it will be one or two in the pallavi and two in the anupallavi. All the añgâs have separate datu. Only in the last quarter of the Caraòa in the kriti in ‘Mahârâjñi’ in Bilahri râgâ and ‘ÚriKâñchinayike’ in Aúavçri râgâ the music of the anupallavi is repeated. In the kriti ‘Úri Kâmâkª i ’ in Sârañga râgâ the speed of the whole Caraòa is increased not by increasing the speed but by increasing the number of words without increasing the number of svarâs. In another kriti he has used real madhyamakTâïa....., in the Caraòa of the kriti “Paramapâvani” in Aþhâòâ râgâ the number of words and svarâs are sixteen in the pallavi and anupallavi, but there are thirty svarâs and sahitya letters in the Caraòa .
The simple kritis of Annâsvâmi Sâstri in which the râgâs are revealed a simple deleniations without any additional elements are OEri Lalite’, in Bhairavi, ‘Vâñcite’ in Madhayamavathy and ‘OEri Kameswara’ in Kambhoji. The kriti ‘OEri Lalite’ in Bhairavi reveals the râgâ âïapana of the râgâ in a nutshell. Just the singing of the pallavi in slow tempo will be an apt preface for the râgâ. This feature is found in some of the kritis of Tyâgarâja and Diksitar (Enatinomu, Bâïagopâïa) and this may be the impact of those kritis.
“nnd – grg – mp d Pd – mpdn
S,ndp – mN dpm GR,S rND nsrgmp – gm
gr G R ……… S ………”
The kriti in Kambhoji is also a simple one. It starts with the phrase ‘pdS’ and the ending phrase of the pallavi is `rssn’ and the visesa prayoga ‘(sn) pdS’ is obtained by combining both the prayogas.


Sañgatis are melodic variations found either in the pallavi or anupallavi but only rarely in Carana.
Though they are sung to the same sahitya, each sangati is a logical progression from the previous one. The recurrence of the sahitya gots hidden under the melodic variations. The overall size of a section (pallavi etc.) in a way does get enlarged by the introduction of sañgatis.
Sañgatis in songs found in the publications upto 1930. Sañgatis found in the compositions of Syâmâ Sâstri might show some common factors among them.
I. The sañgatis are not developed from the opening phrase but only in later portion.
a. The sañgatis are developed in a particular place and the sthâyi and tempo are not varied.
b. Though the sañgatis are developed in a particular place the sthâyi and tempo increase gradually.
I.a Ninnuvinaga’ – Pûrvikalyâni – Syâmâ Sâstri can be grouped under this category where in the grahasvara change does not occur and the development of sañgatis are also limited. It is as follows:
In the song ‘Ninnuvinaga’ in Pûrvikalyâni râgâ as published in GS (pp.156-157), we find some slight changes in the place without changing the graha svara of the pallavi. Sangati runs like this:
1. S D s S R s R G R g R g r n
Ninnu vina gama ridik keva ru na. . ru
The beginning svarâs are kept constant and four variations are found in the place ‘varu naru’ as:
2. g p m D m gm gr
va . ru . . . .na . ru
In the third sangati, the svarâs are as follows:
3. gddM gmgR
Va ru na ru
The fourth line proceeds as
4. g G P p mp pd dm gr
Varu naru ni kila . lo . ka . . .
‘BiranaVaralicci’ – Kalyâni – Syâmâ Sâstri (GS, p.153) can be grouped under the second variety
of the first category wherein the graha svara is not changed but the sañgatis are developed gradually in the place ‘brôvumuninnu’.
There are four sañgatis developed in the same place by increasing the number of svarâs gradually as follows:
; r S s |r R G m | P ; pm, || gr
birana | Varâïicci | bro. vumu | ninnu
- do | gmP mPD Do ||
- do | bro ……… Do ||
- do | gmpd ; pm ||
- do | bro …… Do ||
- do | gmpdnsnd p m ||gr
- do | bro ……. vumu || ninnu ….
In the song “Sañkari” in Bçgada râgâ of Subbarya Sâstri (SSS, p.101) similar type of sañgatis
are developed but with the words “Sañtatamukori vacciti” interspersed with akaras in between as nr dpm d | pdnn dpmp grsn
Sañtatamu. kori va …. citti
While slight change occurs in the second one in the place as follows:
1. dpmp 2. dpmm
va ….. va …..
and the third one changes still further as nsrs || mgrs S \mp dpN || , dpMgrsr
san….. tAþamu ko ………ri…… va..citi
Sañgatis developed in the form of akara syllables in the middle of an âvarta of a passage before
continuing the passage with full sahitya and at the end of the âvarta sung as akaras without syllables and words.
In the song ‘Durusuga’ (SSPS, p.315) sañgatis develop to fill the gap found without sahitya at
the end of the first âvarta of the anupallavi. Here the sañgatis are executed with ‘akaras’ only and no words is added after the akara.
m m | m p, p m d D d n p d m | P ,, ,,,, | , , , , ,, dm ||
parama pa vani kripâ vanivinuta | a . . . . | . . . . . . a . .||
In the second and third sañgatis the gaps are filled as:
P , , , , g r | pm pdnd pDm || and as P , d S , , nd | p M G r s r ||
a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . | | a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ||
respectively. By the gradual increase of the svarâs in the two drutams sañgatis are developed.
Similar types of sañgatis are found in the compositions of Subbarâya Sâstri also. In the kriti ‘Janani’ in Ritigaula (SSPS, p.337) variations are developed with the akara of the word ‘Ninnuvina’ and the second line follows it with sahitya.
3. Sañgatis are developed gradually and extended to successive âvartas also and the final sañgatis spread over the full line.
In the kriti ‘Sarojadâïanetri’ of Úyâmâ Sâstri in Sankarabarana râgâ (SSPS, p.310), we find the
sangati extended over the whole âvarta in the second line of the pallavi. First sangati is developed from the place ‘Úri Minaksamma’ while the second developed from the beginning with slight changes occuring here and there.
I Sangati : g r S S n S , grg g m P | gR , , , , S S |
Sadâ nammina . namma subhamim| ma . . . .OErimi |
S, nP mg mggr
nâ . . ksa mma
II Sangati : g r S sn gr G mggr g g m P | DO , , , , S rgmp |
Sadâ nammi na nam . masubamim| ma . . . . .OErimi . .|
S, n P sndp mgrg ||
nâ . . . ksamma ||
The treatment of sañgatis has a different aspect in the HW of Úyâmâ Sâstri II though they fall in the three categories mentioned earlier. The numbers of sañgatis are more but they present slight variations only.
In the development of sanga the kriti ‘BiranaVarâïicci’ is found only with three sañgatis in the book GS as mentioned earlier but in this notebook there are six sañgatis.
The two sañgatis interspersed in HW
gmpd , , pm | gr
bro . . . . vumu | ninnu ||
gmpd N pm | gr
bro . . . . . vumu | ninu
The fifth sangati is the same as the third one of the earlier and the sixth sangati varies as
DO nD, nP, pm | gr
bro vumu ………ninnu
In the development of sañgatis we find that slight changes are marked as sañgatis in HW of Syâmâ Sâstri II in the song of Subbarâya Sâstri also.
In the kriti ‘Nannu brocutaku’, we find six sañgatis in the first line as in HW of Úyâmâ Sâstri II.
The sañgatis develop in the middle of the avartha in the place. “(brocutaku tamasam) yale”. and this can be classified as the second variety of the first category wherein the graha svara is not changed and the sthâyi and tempo are changed to certain extent.
In the first one it is:
P ; ; D N | Sns ndD | P G ; r s || rn+
bro …cuta | kuta ………ma | samya le || …..
In the second one only tamasa is changed slightly as:
S , N , D ……
ku tâ ma
In the third, change occurs in the place brocuta itself as:
G M D ; D M d d | N , d d n d d | M G ; rs ||
nanu bro ……cu ta| ku tâ ……ma | sam ya le ||
The fourth one develops further as:
do .. M dn | Ddn s n D | P G ; rs ||rn+
do .. cuta | ku tâ ……ma | samya le - ||…..
In the next two sañgatis change occur in the third âvarta only as
r S r N d d and s r g r – s n d n | d d m g ; , r ||S+
ku . tâ – ma ku… tâ …….ma | sam …ya – le||
‘Úri Kamâïambike’ in Dçúiya Tôdi râgâ is a song with a number of sañgatis both in the pallavi and anupallavi as in HW of Úyâmâ Sâstri II. Here the sañgatis are in madhyamakâïa, while the melodic range covered by sañgatis is limited in pallavi it is quite wide in anupallavi.
Sañgatis are in madhyamakâïa and prsesent only slight variatons in melody.
1. gm pd | G,mmg mgrs
Ka . ma . lâmba na …
2. gm pd | G , m pdG mgrs
Kama .. | lâmba na ………
3. d p | mgpm P,d mgrs
Kama | lâm ba na ………
There are nine sañgatis in the place Pakaripramukha of the anupallavi. Each sangati has only slight difference from the previous one, but there is a gradual rise in the sthâyi.
We find sañgatis with slight variations in HW after the 7th sangati; the sthâyi again comes to
madhyasthâyi, which is an unusual factor in the development of sañgatis. There are three sañgatis in madhyasthâyi as follows:
8. G mp; P p m || d d n n s n ||
Pa . ka . ri pra || mukha sura nuta||
9. mgpm pdnd dp pm ||
Pa . . . ka . . .ri pra ||
ggmm pdnd dppm ||
Pa . . . ka . . ri pra ||
In the kriti “Vanajâsana” in Úri râgâ , there are ten sañgatis in the pallavi. They are in
madhyamakâïa..... and are developed in the second line of the pallavi. They are developed systematically from madhya sthâyi to tara sthâyi.
n n S r m | P p m R g r S ||
Varadayaki | OEri la . li ta ….. ||
n n S r m | P n p p m R g r S ||
Varadayaki | OEri. . la. . li . . ta ||
The sañgatis are gradually developed. The fifth sangati developed as:
5. n n s r m p | m p n p p m R g r S ||
Upto the eighth sangati ‘n n s r m p’is kept constant and the rest is changed as:
6. p n p – m p m R g r S
7. m p N M R g r s
8. m p s n p m R g r s
In the ninth and tenth sangati it is changed as:
n n S / s n | p m P M R g r S and as
n n s r m p|/ S s n p m R g r S
Annasvamy Sâstri’s compositions are met with in the HW of Úyâmâ Sâstri II for the first time. He has introduced sañgatis only in some of his compositions. They are mostly madhyamakâïa sañgatis as found in the songs Vanajâsana, Emaninne of Subbarâya Sâstri as in HW of Úyâmâ Sâstri II. They resemble the impact of post trinity compositions with set sañgatis.
In the kriti “Paramapâvani” in Aþhâòâ râgâ, there are some sañgatis in the first line in the place
“Mamava” and in the second line in the place “putri”.
1. ; p m p pmgm ,m | P , d | pd , P ||
parama pâ …… va |ni …ma | ma va ||
2. ; p m p pmgm ,m | P ,p | d p d ND ||
parama pâ …… va | ni ma | … ma … va ||
3. ; p m p pmgm ,m | P , dn | S ; ,d ||
parama pâ …… va | ni ma . ma . va ||
4. ; p m p pmgm ,m | P , p d | pnS do ||
parama pâ …… va | ni ma … ma do ||
5. ; p m p pmgm ,m | P , ns | rs ns rs D ||
parama pâ …… va | ni ma …ma … va ||
In the second line one sangati is seen as:
rmrs nsrm|pnsn dD, ||
pu …tri ………….amba ||
Another kriti with set sañgatis is “Mahârâjñi” in Bilahari râgâ. There are sañgatis developed in
the increasing order in the pallavi. The sañgatis are developed in the place ‘mâm pâhi’ and the last two sañgatis are extended through out the line ‘Mahârâjñi mâm pâhi’.
; | mg Rgm gp || r+
| pa hi……..|| …
;dd | pdP mg || r
……| …pa hi..||
P pdnd | P mg || r
mâm ……|Pa …. || hi
pd dn | mg Rgm GP | r+
ma … m | pa …………..| hi
Pdsnsnd | ndP mg | r+
ma……m| pa………| hi
s R Snd grG | G R | sndn Pmg || gr
Mahâ ra …jñi| mâm | pa ……….. | hi
sR Snd srgp | d s Srg rsnd | Pdn dpmgrg |
Mahâra …jñi…| mâm …………. | pa …………..||
mggr+ g G P mg ………………………
hi….. Mahâra jñi……………………

Auxiliary sections in Kritis

Apart from the three essential sections there are some auxiliary sections figure in some kritis. They are introduced as additional sections incorporated in the structural format of the kritis.
Ciþþasvara or solfa passages are introduced in some of the kritis of OEyâmâ Sâstri. The kritis are as follows:
Song Râgâ Source
PâhiÚri Ânandhabhairavi GS (p.155)
Pâliñcu Kâmâkª i Madhyamavati SK,(p.49),SSSS (p.217)
Nannubrôvu Lalita SSSS (p.216)
Sañkari Saveri HW (pp.34-35)
In the three kritis published in the books belonging to early thirties the graha svara of the pallavi and the ciþþasvara seems to be the same, [Sa in PahiOEri, Ni in Palimcu and ‘Ga’ in NannuBrôva]. While it is different in the song Sañkari – Saveri râgâ - grahasvara of the pallavi is ‘Sa’, while the ciþþasvara starts on the svara ‘Ri’. Of the four kritis mentioned above the cittasvarâs of the first two songs are now sung with sahitya, while the other two are not in popular use now.
Svara patterns found in the two cittasvarâs are as follows:
pmp – srs – (three svarâs)
mpmnp – nsrS – rsnP – (five svarâs)
pmpnsR – (seven svarâs)- Pâliñcu
smggrs – gmgrsn – smGrs, snsmgr – (grouping of six svarâs)
sGmgmp – gMgrsn – (seven svarâs) - PahiOEri
The only kriti of Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri. With ciþþasvara is ‘Úri Kâmâkª i’ in Sârañga râgâ. The kriti is sung in slow tempo in the pallavi and the anupallavi followed by a samakâïa ciþþasvara. In the ciþþasvara datu svarâs, groupings of svarâs are found. n s r S s – m p d P p - and S,dpm – P , pmR – gM- are groupings of svarâs and snrs – sgrs – nrnd are the datu svarâs found in the ciþþasvara. The svara structure resembles the arrangement of svarâs in the svarâsahityas of Úyâmâ Sâstri rather than the cittasvarâs of Syâmâ Sâstri.


Another additional element found in the kritis of Syâmâ Sâstri is the svarâsahitya. Syâmâ Sâstri has introduced this anga in some of his kritis.
Svarâsahitya is a combination of solfa passage with appropriate sahitya passages for the
svarâs. The svara part should melodically maintained a continuity with a melody of the sahitya of Caraòa and then melodically lead to the pallavi. Again the sahitya portion of the svarâsahitya should blend with the sahitya of the Caraòa and later with the pallavi.

Name Râgâ Source
‘Durusuga’ Saveri SSSS (p.213) ; SK (p.47)
‘Marivçre’ Ânandhabhairavi SSSS (p.215)
Ninne nammi Tôdi HW [p.15]
Mâyamma Nâþakurunji KMM [p. 62]
Sarievvaramma Bhairavi [KMMp.68]
Kâmâkshi Varâïi KMM (p.77)
Regarding the tempo of the svarâsahitya, Syâmâ Sâstri has not introduced madhyamakâïa through this element. In the kriti “Durusuga” (Saveri) he has composed the svarâsahitya passage in the same tempo without increasing the number of syllables per beat. In this kriti it is as follows:
Pallavi – Durusugakrpajuci santAþa | (15 letters in the laghu)
Svarâsahitya – Saroja nayana Nâþa Jana paliniva | ni . . . (16 letters in the laghu)
In the kriti “Marivçre” in Anandabhairvai, there is an appearance of an increase in the tempo. In
the pallavi, anupallavi or Caraòa of this kriti, we find the numbers of sahitya syllables are four or five in one âvarta while they are six or seven in an âvarta in the svarâsahitya pasage.
For example in the kriti “Marivçre” the number of sahitya letters are as follows:
Pallavi – Marivçre || . . . . . re || gati Evva || ram ma ||
Svarâsahitya - P ; d p m| gpmg mgr ||
Pâ dayuga | mumâdilo tâïa.....ci ||
Subbarâya Sâstri has introduced svarâsahitya in the following songs.
Name Râgâ Source
Nannu brocutaku Tôdi SK (p.54), HW (p.65)
Janani Ninnuvina Ritigaula GP (p.118), HW (p.55)
Emaninne Mukhâri SK (p.55),HW (p.67)
NinnuSçviñcina Yadukulakâmbhôji SSSS (p.220), HW (86)
Ninnuvina Kalyâni SK (p.56), HW (74)
Sañkari Nivani Begada SSSS(p.217), HW (p.61)
Vanajâsana OEri GP (p.119), HW (p.58)
Úri Kamâïambike Dçúiya Tôdi SSSS (p.218), HW(p.77)
These are also found only after the Caraòa part in the early books as in the kritis of Syâmâ Sâstri. Since the music of the anupallavi is repeated in the last quarter of the Caraòa in some kritis (‘Janani’ and ‘Emaninne’). Svarâsahityas suit when sung either after the anupallavi or after the Caraòa. Among the eleven kritis available we find svarâsahitya in eight kritis. In the kritis ‘Janani’ in Ritigaula, “Nannubrocutaku” in Tôdi and “Ninnuvina” in Kalyâòi the svarâsahityas are constructed as in the kritis of Syâmâ Sâstri without increasing the tempo. In some kritis Subbarâya Sâstri has introduced dirgha svarâs in the beginning and madhyamakâïa svarâs in the later âvartas. The svarâsahitya found in the kriti ‘Vanajâsana’ start with
the note ‘Ri’ having six akºara karvai followed by madhyamakâïa svarâs as rp pm rrg rrs npnn and again the svara ‘Sa’ is rendered for a karvai of six akºaras followed by madhyamakâïa svarâs. In these svarâsahityas the tempo is increased by the profusion of sahitya and svarâs. Another rare feature found in the svarâsahitya of the kriti “Úri Kamâïambike” is the madhyamakâïa sahitya sung at the end. This is as follows: The same svarâs of the previous four âvartas are repeated with different sahitya.
n s n G g | mg d N s ||
Ni kh i la sa ksi | suta ni Brôva
n g r N d | nd P g m ||
Ni nu vi na e | vari lo la ||
n s n G m d d N s s | n g r N dnd p G m ||
Nijamukapalikinanidi | nigama gamu nuta ra ve ||

Patterns of svarâs found in the svarâsahitya

In the svarâsahityas of the two kritis “Durusuga” and “Marivçre” of Syâmâ Sâstri we also
find patterns in the organisation of svarâs. In the svarâsahitya in Saveri râgâ kriti, svarâs are formed in tisra (npd – srs) and Khaòda patterns (mpmdp – sndrs). In the Ânandhabhairavi kriti janta svarâs and datu svarâs figure (nnssggmm – janta) (psnd, pndp, dpd – datu). In both these svarâsahityas we find a pattern of svara at the end.
Durusuga - g R s n d – r S n d P – g r n
para kusalu – parâdiyani – vipudu
Marivçre - n s n r S – n d p P – m g r G m
dharaloNâþa – vanakutu – hTâïa.....ni vega
Subbarâya Sâstri has also used some patterns of svarâs in his svarâsahitya. The svara sahitya of
the song “Nannubrocutaku” in Tôdi râgâ is constructed with pancama varja prayogas throughout. They are as follows:
(G; , g m n d m g r) (n g r ) (n d m G g) (d N d m)
In the kriti “Emaninne” in Mukhâri râgâ, we find combinations of svarâs, in different groupings.
A tisram and misram - R g – s r s n d p d
Two Khaòda ms - s r g S – n d P m
A tisram, six akºaras, catusram and a tisram - p D – s r m p D – s n d p – m p d
A Khaòda m and a tisram - s r g S – n d p
Tisram + catusram + tisram - d P – m G , - R s
In many kritis the svarâsahityas end with some notable patterns though not in a specific makutam pattern.
1. Tôdi kriti - d N d m – g M g r s – D n s r
(5) (6) (5)
2. Ritigaula kriti - S n d m – M g r s – S n p
(5) (5) (4)
3. Kalyâòi kriti - S n d p – P m g r s – D n s r
(5) (6) (5)
4. Yadukula Kambhoji kriti - p d r S ; - m p D P – m g r
(7) (6) (3)

Madhyamakâïa sâhithya

Madhyamakâïa sâhithya are mentioned under general strucure where the whole anga either
anupallavi or Caraòa is sung in madhyamakâïa. Here the addition of passage of meaningful text sung at the end of the añgâs in madhyamakâïa alone is dealt with. This feature is found only in the compositions of Subbarâya Sâstri and Annâsvâmi Sâstri and not in those of Syâmâ Sâstri.
Regarding the madhyamakâïa sâhithya employed in the kritis of Subbarâya Sâstri there are two
types. In the first the numbers of svara and sahitya letters are found in profusion in the same tempo. In the song ‘Nannu brocutaku’, we find this type of madhyamakâïasâhithya at the end of the Caraòa. The madhyamakâïasâhithya has sahitya letters for almost all thirty-two counts of the âvarta with less number of dirgha svarâs.
p d n s s r G r s nd p d n s | dnsrns – ns | Dpm G . s ||
Karuna –nidine vâïa.....ne–gâïa.....da| daralopâïa.....ni ra|Nâþavuni yeve ||
In the kriti ‘Dâïacina’ in Dhanyâsi râgâ, anupallavi and Caraòa are set in madhyamakâïa of this
type. The pallavi proceeds in the following manner;
g m P S ; sn dp mg | r s +
dâïacina …va ……ru | ……
The anupallavi and Caraòa have a profusion of words with the same number of akºaras in an
Anupallavi : gmp – P p d n r s r n ss r n
tâïa.....ci ve dukone kolicina va – riki |
p r s r n s d p dpM ppmg || rs+
pâïamulanosake – lali tambaninu || ……dâïa
Caraòa : GmP p d p nsrs N d p ||
Kori sannitini cerini du pada
nsrn d p d p M d p mppm gm || , g +
varica mulamana sâraka ko …… lici || …… dâïa
In the kriti ‘Vanajâsana’ in Úri râgâ we find another type of madhyamakâïasâhitya wherein the
svarâs and sahitya are doubly increased. The Caraòa ends as:
g r S r s N s n P | s n P M p m r g r s
Ilalo pâïani vâïane | Kâïada Úri lali tambike
Annâsvâmi Sâstri has included some âvartas of madhyamakâïa sâhitya in some of his kritis. In the kriti ‘Úri Kamçsvara’ in Kambhoji râgâ, at the end of the Caraòa there is a madhyamakâïasâhitya as:
(S s ), r g R ; r s | p d S n d – P d d S |
(Vate) Karuòa m kru | paramesvari – Sañkari Úri |
p d – p d S n d – nd pm |
kari karu namkari subha kari
Here both sahitya and svara syllables are doubled and thus increases the speed and makes it a real madhyamakâïasâhitya.
This section discusses formerly some individual râgâs and then the opening or introductory phrases in some compositions. The râgâs taken up are
1. Kalyâni,
2. Ânandhabhairavi
3. Tôdi
4. Sañkarâbharana
5. Paraz and
6. Sâveri
7. Ciñtâmani and Kalkada
While the first six figures in more than one kriti, Ciñtâmani and Kalkada represent relatively unknown râgâs.
The râgâ Kalyâni is portrayed in a nutshell in the kriti ‘Biranavarâïicci’ and in a detailed manner
in the kriti ‘Tallininnu’ as in HW of Úyâmâ Sâstri II. Misracâpu tâïa with pauses in profusion helps to reveal the dirgha kampita svarâs of the râgâ very well. The râgâ Kalyâòi is portrayed only in madhyasthâyi in the two kritis the range does not go beyond tarasthâyi ‘ga’ and below mandrasthâyi ‘ni’. In the kriti ‘Biranavarâïicci’ here and there madhyamakâïa phrases are added.
Subbarâya Sâstri had composed the kriti “Ninnuvina” in this râgâ, giving the opening svarâs as
`gmpD’ as seen in the kritis of Tyâgarâja and Diksitar (“Etavunara” and “Kamâïambham bhajare”) and not
on the note `ri’ as the two kritis of Úyâmâ Sâstri mentioned here. Svarâs centers round madhya and tara
sthâyi in all the three añgâs while mandra sthâyi svarâs are also found along with sa, pa varja prayogas in
the svarâsahitya.
Ânandhabhairavi is a râgâ that has been used by Úyâmâ Sâstri in four kritis. These four kritis
analysed here as based on the version given in HW of Úyâmâ Sâstri II. The kriti ‘Himachâïaþanaya’
reveals the simple portrayal of the râgâ, while Jaru gamakas are sung in madhyamakâïa in rupaka tâïa in the
kriti ‘PahiOEri’ and they are sung in slow tempo in misra câpu tâïa in the kriti ‘Marivçre”. The elaborate
form of the râgâ is seen in the kriti ‘Ô Jagadamba’ in the slow tempo in âdi tâïa two kâïai.
Tôdi râgâ has been handled in three kritis, which are in three different tâïas. The kriti ‘Karuòanidhi’
is in rupaka tâïa, while ‘Ninnenamminanu’ in câpu tâïa and the kriti Emani migula is in irandukâïai âdi tâïa.
The range of the first composition covers the three sthâyis. In the pallavi melodic movement is around the
madhyasthâyi in most of the places, occasionally touching madrasthâyi. The anupallavi goes upto tarasthâyi
while the Caraòa covers the pallavi and anupallavi. In the kriti ‘Ninnenammi’ the music goes upto tarasthâyi
in the second line of the pallavi itself
The kriti ‘Nannubrocutaku’ of Subbarâya Sâstri is in âdi tâïa irandu kâïai. The graha svara of the
pallavi is dirgha kampita ‘Ga’. The anupallavi starts with the samvâdi svarâs as ‘spdP’ and the Caraòa
starts with a svarakºara as:
M D ;
Ma ra
Sancaras are found in the madhya and tarasthâyi in all the three añgâs while the beginning of the
second line of the pallavi and Caraòa alone comes down to mandrasthâyi svarâs upto dhaivAþa. ‘PG,rs’,
‘dmGrs’, ‘ddGrs’, ‘rnd’ are some of the notable prayogas used in this composition. Use of dirgha svarâs
are found profusely in this kriti that resembles the kriti ‘Ninnenammi’ of Úyâmâ Sâstri.
The two kritis of Úyâmâ Sâstri in the râgâ Sañkarâbharaòa are ‘Sarojadâïa’ and ‘Dçviminanetri’.
They are analysed as found in the book S.S.P.S. and H.W. respectively. In the first kriti a profusion of
words is found but comparatively there is less number of words in the second one. The kriti ‘Sarojadâïa’
starts from tara sa and comes down to madhyasthâyi in the pallavi ending with a prayoga in the descending
order as ‘sndpmgrs’. Both anupallavi and Caraòa center round tarasthâyi after starting from the note as
‘sSs’ and ‘P, pppm’ respectively. The upper limit is only tara ‘ga’. ‘SnP’ and sdP are the visesa prayogas
found in this kriti. Jaru prayogas are found in the anupallavi as ‘sSs/Sss’ and ‘mP/sdP’.
The other kriti centres round madhyasthâyi with occasional touches of mandrasthâyi and tarasthâyi.
The grahasvarâs of the various añgâs are as follows M;GM-pallavi S/PmP-anupallavi GMP-Caraòa ).
Though the words are less in this kriti, use of dirgha svarâs is limited and the tâïa pulse is filled with more
akaras. For e.g. the last line of the anupallavi is as follows:
nsgr grrs snnd ddP | mpdpsddp | pmmgmggr || S+
cin…ta…… …mani | dai………| yu…..…nna || ra.
There are two kritis in the râgâ paraz. Both the kritis start with the same pattern of svarâs but for
a slight change and the finishing notes of the pallavi are also similar in nature, as shown below:
; gmpm | GRSn || sMgM,
vu…… | ….amba || Trilôka
gmpm gmgr || sn + | S ; | M ; | G M ||
sa……ksi….|| ………. Ni | la | …ya ||
In both the kritis music is built around tarasthâyi in most of the places. The melodic structure of the
anupallavi is repeated in the latter half of the Caraòa in both the kritis. The svara ‘ni’ is used as a janta svara
in both the kritis as ‘NNS’. The svara prayogas are in the descending order in most of the places in the kriti
‘TrilôkamAþa’ and the use of ‘pdnd’ is not found in this kriti while it is found in the kriti ‘Nilâyatâkºi’.
The four kritis in Saveri râgâ are analysed as found in the HW. In all the four kritis the music is
woven round madhya sthâyi with some sancaras in tarasthâyi touching ‘ga’. Though a profusion of words
is found in all the four kritis, the kriti ‘Durusuga’ is in the model of the kritis of Pallavi Gopâïayyar as
mentioned by Dr.C.K.Reetha (Reetha, C.K., 1987, P.221) with a continuous flow of svara and sahitya,
the other two kritis ‘Sañkari’ and ‘Janani’ have a little pause in the middle, and there is a gap in the
beginning itself in the kriti ‘OEri Patimukha’.
Ciñtâmaòi and Kalkada
The râgâs Ciñtâmaòi and Kalkada seem to have been rarely in use in the earlier period. We find a
kriti of Tyâgarâja in the râgâ Kalkada and there is no kriti in the râgâ Ciñtâmaòi. There are different
versions for the râgâ Ciñtâmaòi whi
The râgâs Ciñtâmaòi and Kalkada seem to have been rarely in use in the earlier period. We find a
kriti of Tyâgarâja in the râgâ Kalkada and there is no kriti in the râgâ Ciñtâmaòi. There are different
versions for the râgâ Ciñtâmaòi which is discussed by C.K.Reetha (Reetha, C.K., 1987, p.227) and by
Dr.V.Raghavan in his article “Úri Úyâmâ Sâstri” (Dr.Raghavan, V., JMA, 1977).
The râgâ Ciñtâmaòi is introduced at the outset giving importance to the svara risabha and vakra
prayogas, which is incorporated in the scale itself. [rgppmGRgs]
Dirgha svarâs are admitted in this râgâ are portrayed in the Caraòa as
G , R , S ; S , R , g s
Úri Kâñchi ke mam ma
The beginning of the words of the âvartas of the Caraòa is sung with a pause as mentioned above.
Though there are different opinions about this râgâ. S.Rajah, the direct descendent of the composer, said
in a discussion with the writer that this râgâ resembles the râgâ Bhairavi with pratimadhyama. (PI dated
Kalkada is another rare râgâ used by Úyâmâ Sâstri.This râgâ is listed under the thirteenth mela in
the book Râgâ Pravaham (Dhandapani, M.M. and Pattammal, D., 1985, p.76). The correct version of the
râgâ is the janya of the 13th mela with vivâdi svarâs says S.Rajah, the direct descendent in a discussion with
the author. Úyâmâ Sâstri has used the vivâdi svara in the beginning itself as:
P p d n d
(Par) vatininnu ….
Prayogas do not go beyond tara ‘ri’ in this kriti. Both sdp and sNdP prayogas come in this kriti.
The finishing phrase used in the anupallavi and Caraòa before taking up the pallavi is rsrnsp.
Úyâmâ Sâstri and Subbarâya Sâstri had have adopted some methods of introducing the key
sancharas of the râgâs at the outset in some compositions. In the râgâ Ânandhabhairavi he has used the
three svarâs sa-pa-sa as the opening phrase in the kriti PahiÚri as
S / P / S with errajaru.
Pa hi OEri
This is unique, as it is not found in the kritis of the others. Combinations of ‘sa-pa’ or ‘pa-sa’ are
found in the kritis of the others but this combination is unique and it reveals the râgâbhava very well. Here
are some instances of the earlier kritis.
Kannatalli - Merattur Venkaþarama Sâstri -
srsrsnNnn - Pallavi
Kan . nata
(SSP of S.D. Part V, p.1408)
In this kriti the anupallavi start as ‘gpP and Caraòa as nsMm
Pahisesasailanayaka – Margadarsi Sesa Ayyangar
P, p P p - Pallavi
Pahisesa (JMA, Vol.XLIII, p.171)
Anandesvarena – Muttusvami Diksitar –
P ; ; S ; Sns N
A . . nan de . . .
(SSP of SD, Part II, p.340)
In the above-mentioned examples only two svarâs are combined. Combining the three octave
svarâs in the opening phrase omitting the other svarâs in the middle is to be noted in the kriti of Úyâmâ
The kriti ‘Trilôkamaþa’ in Paraz begins with the melody in an ascending order svarâs and also with
dirgha svarâs in the two kritis ‘Trilôkamaþa’ and ‘Nilâyatâkºi’
S G m P D n S, s s N D P M -[ G S of T S – Pp156 ]
Trilo ka mAþa nanu Brôva Karuòa nu
The other kriti ‘Nilâyatâkºi’ also has the opening phrase as:
S ; M ; G M D ; ; D N s r S || -
Ni la yaþa . . . . . . . . . .ksi ||
Similarly Subbarâya Sâstri has suggested some new opening phrases for some of the râgâs
(Mukhâri, Bçgada and HamîrKalyâòi). In the above-mentioned râgâs the kritis in the first two râgâs start
in mandra sthâyi as ndDsRM – Mukhâri and DPSNRS – Bçgada. Usually the kritis in these râgâs start
from the svara Sa, ri, pa in Mukhâri râgâ and ga, Ni, Sa in Bçgada râgâ. The kriti ‘Sâmininera’ of Úyâmâ
Ssatri also starts on tara ‘sa’ as:
S,,,,, N,,,,, D,
The kriti in HamîrKalyâòi râgâ starts with the svarâs
,,S ; r S p MdP | S;
Venkaþa sailavi | ha ra
Which is also a rare feature. The two kritis (Parimâïa and Purahara) of Muttusvami Diksitar start as
GgpmPm Mdp pg
r sSn d pPm
Among the compositions of the disciples of Úyâmâ Sâstri we find the impact of the composer
through the above-mentioned similarities. Subbarâya Sâstri had adopted the svarâsahitya element from his
father and had beautified his kritis adding other elements as madhyamakâïa, finishing with ½ idam as his
own contributions. Samakâïa sañgatis used in the portrayal of the râgâ are found in some kritis and sañgatis
developed in madhyamakâïa figures in many of his kritis. Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri has used only madhyamakâïa
sañgatis and madhyamakâïa sahityas in his kritis .In one of his kriti we find ciþþasvara.
The advent of the trinity with their compositions paved the way for a new era in the growth of kriti.
They gave importance not only to melody but also to the temporal aspect or laya.
Eduppu or graha is the place where in the song starts in the Tâïa......This plays an important role in
the construction of a composition.There are songs which start on sama eduppu, that is, the Tâïa..... as well
as music start at the same time from the beginning of the Tâïa..... count.There are some songs which start
after the Tâïa..... begins.This is called anagAþa eduppu.Some songs start before the Tâïa..... âvarta, that is,
in the previous âvarta itself and that is called atita eduppu.Usually in songs the eduppu will be uniformly the
same in all the three añgâs either sama or anagAþa.We also find different eduppus among the different
sections within a song of OEyâmâ Sâstri. (Appndix I; Chart V).There are some songs in which two añgâs
start on the same eduppu and one anga has a different one. They are as follows:
1. Birana - Kalyâòi - Rûpakam
2. Sañkari - Saveri - Rûpakam
3. Himâdrisute - Kalyâòi - Rûpakam
4. Dçviminanetri - Sañkarâbharaòa - Âdi
5. Dçvinipada - Kambhoji - Âdi
6. Ennçramum - Punnâgavarâli - Âdi
7. Mâyamma - Naþakuriñji - Âdi
8. Karuòajûda - Varâïi - Câpu
9. Sañkari - Kalyâòi - Aþa
In the song ‘BiranaVarâïicci’ in Kalyâòi râgâ and the song `Himâdrisute’ with the same structure
but in Sanskrit, a special eduppu is found in rupaka Tâïa......The pallavi and anupallavi start after the first
beat, that is, in the second beat or after four akºarakTâïa.....s.The Caraòa of the song start after two
akºara kTâïa.....s. In this song the padagarbham falls on the sixth beat and again the words start after a
karvai ofeight akºaras.This gives a grip to the song over the Tâïa......
Another song in which the Caraòa alone starts after two akºaras while the pallavi and anupallavi
start on some eduppu is ‘Sañkari’ in Saveri râgâ. These two kritis belong to the group of kritis prevailing
since early thirties. There are some kritis which figure only after 1930. Among them the two kritis in the
râgâs Sañkarâbharaòa and Kambhoji alone figure in the notation of Úyâmâ Sâstri II and the rest figure in
the books of others of the same period. In the four kritis in âdi Tâïa..... mentioned above either sama or
anagAþa eduppu is kept for one anga and the other two añgâs have different ones. For example, in the
song ‘Dçvi ni pada’ in Kambhoji, the pallavi start after two akºaras while anupallavi and Caraòa have
sama eduppu. In the kriti ‘Mâyamma’ in Nâþakurunji râgâ, this is reversed. Pallavi has sama eduppu and
anupallavi and Caraòa start after two akºaras. In the kritis ‘Dçviminanetri’ in Sañkarâbharaòa râgâ and
‘Ennçramum’ in Punnâgavarâli râgâ, the pallavi and Caraòa start after four akºaras while the anupallavi
start on sama. In the kriti ‘Karuòajûda’ in Varâïi râgâ, câpu Tâïa..... the anupTâïa.....lvi alone start after
one akºara and the other two añgâs start on sama. In the kriti ‘Sañkari’ in Kalyâòi râgâ catuhsra Aþa
Tâïa..... the Caraòa alone start after one akºara and the others on sama. There are some songs set in misra
câpu Tâïa..... in the krama order as 3+4, but the eduppu gives the impression as if the songs are sung in
Viloma câpu. The songs start in the last beat of the Tâïa..... and so the structure is formed as 2 + 3 + 2.
‘Nannubrôvu’ in Lalita râgâ and ‘Tallininnu’ in Kalyâòi râgâ and ‘Minalôcana’ in Dhanyâsi râgâ can be
cited as examples. The song ‘Ninnuvinaga’ in PurvaKalyâòi râgâ is the only song set in regular viloma câpu
which starts in the place Takâdimi and then takita follows as in HW of Úyâmâ Sâstri II, says S.Rajah. In
the HW of Úyâmâ Sâstri II all the songs are written only in the form 4+3 but the eduppu alone is denoted
either as 4+3 or 3+4 or 2+3+2 by an asterik mark.
Tempo or Kâïapramana of the Compositions
Though, most of the songs of Úyâmâ Sâstri are in slow medium tempo in âdi Tâïa..... two kTâïa.....i,
there are some songs in oru (one) kTâïa.....i âdi Tâïa..... in fast medium tempo. The songs in misra câpu
and triputa Tâïa.....s also are mostly sung in slow medium tempo. The long drawn out rhythm with many
pauses is seen in câpu Tâïa..... compositions less number of words with pauses here and there are found in
these kritis. Some of his compositions in âdi Tâïa..... have a tight knit relation between the Tâïa..... akºaras
and sahitya letters. Almost all the svara letters have sahitya letters and hrasva letters found in profusion.
For example, songs like SarojadTâïa.....netri in Sañkarâbharaòa râgâ, ‘DçviBrôva’ in Ciñtâmaòi râgâ,
though are set in two kTâïa.....i âdi Tâïa....., the tempo seems to be increased and gives the impression that
the song is set in madhyamakTâïa...... We do not find extensive pauses in these songs. The pauses are
limited and words are many and this appears that the tempo is increased. The songs set in orukTâïa.....i âdi
Tâïa..... or rupaka and other Tâïa.....s are set in fast medium tempo. ‘Pârvatininnu’ in Kalkada ,
‘BiranaVarâïicci’ in Kalyâòi can be sighted as example. Thus we find three different tempos such as slow,
slow medium and fast medium tempos among the compositions of Úyâmâ Sâstri.
Arudi or Padagarbham is a pause that occurs in between the Tâïa..... âvarta. Usually it occurs at
the middle of the Tâïa..... in two kâïai âdi Tâïa..... or in the beginning of the next âvarta in oru kTâïa.....i âdi
Tâïa..... or in the beginning of the third âvarta or in rupaka Tâïa..... or câpu Tâïa...... In the songs
‘Kanakaúaila’ in Punnâgavarâli râgâ, ‘Mâyamma’ in Âhiri râgâ, ‘Emani migula’ in Tôdi râgâ, ‘Pâliñcu
Kâmâkªi’ in Madhyamavathy râgâ, ‘Dçvi Ni padasarasa’ in Kambhoji râgâ, ‘Dçviminanetri’ in
Sankarabarana râgâ, ‘DçviBrôva’ in Ciñtâmaòi râgâ in âdi Tâïa..... two kâïai as found in the notation of
Úyâmâ Sâstri II have the pada gharbha exactly at the middle of the âvarta, that is, on the first druta. The
pause occurs dividing the âvarta into two and after a pause for two or four or three akºaras, the song
proceeds further.
In the songs having two âvartas in the pallavi and arudi occurs in both the âvartas. For e.g. we find
padagharghas in the two âvartas in the kriti ‘Mâyamma’ in Nâþakurunji râgâ, one in the first âvarta and the
second in the second âvarta.
Mayam ………. | ma ……. nannu | Brôva vam ||
ma+ ma ha ma | ya …….. u | ma ……… ||
Similarly in the song ‘Sarojadâïanetri’ in Sankarabarana râgâ, we find two padagarbhas for the
Saroja dâïa netri himagiripu | tri ……… ni | padam
Sada nammina namma subhamim | ma … … OEri | ………
In orukâïai âdi tâïa..... this pause occurs at the beginning of the next âvarta as in the song ‘Karuòa
judu’ in Úri râgâ.
;Karuòa judu ninnu | nammina | vaduga ||
da ………..in ta | parake | lanamma ||
The kriti ‘Karuòa judu’ as rendered in misra câpu tâïa..... in the 4 + 3 gait has the padagarbham at
the beginning of the fifth âvarta in the word ‘ga’ as seen in the notation of Úyâmâ Sâstri II.
; n s n P ||; M nPpM || R G r S || s n n p n N || S ; , R ||
Karuòa ju || du ninnu || nammina || va . . . . dana ||ga . da ||
NS Rm | ; pP, N |mpN m P |
yinta para | ke la | na mma |
The kritis in rupaka tâïa..... and câpu tâïa..... have the padagarbham at the commencement of the third
Examples of such are as follows :
‘Ninne’ in Tôdi râgâ and câpu tâïa...... This kriti has two lines of sâhithya and had pause for the
two lines at the beginning of the third âvarta.
Ninnenam || mi na ……… || nu ……… sa || da ……… ne ||
vin na pa || mu vi ni || nan …… nu || bro ……vumu ||
‘Minalôcana’ in Dhanyâsi râgâ in câpu tâïa......
‘Nannubrôvu’ in Lalita râgâ in câpu tâïa.....
‘PahiÚri’ in Ânandhabhairavi râgâ in rupaka tâïa.....
‘Karuòajûda’ in Varâïi râgâ in câpu tâïa.....
‘Biranavara’ in Kalyâòi râgâ in rupaka tâïa.....
‘Ninnuvina’ in Ritigaula râgâ in rupaka tâïa......
Pauses found in different places
There are some kritis in which pauses occur in different places i.e. at the end of the pallavi, at the
end of the first âvarta and so on. There are kritis which do not have pauses in between the âvartas but
pause occurs only after finishing the pallavi at the end of the second âvarta. For example, in the kriti
‘Durusuga’ in Saveri râgâ, we find pause only at the end of the pallavi, whereas In the kriti ‘Marivçre’ in
Ânandhabhairavi râgâ, we find a pause at the end of the first âvarta itself in both the lines as
Marive ……| ……………re | ga ti ye vva | ram … ma ||
Mahilo ……| …………….I. | mahilo ….. | brocu taku ||
Similarly in the kriti ‘Janani’ in Saveri râgâ, we find a pause in the beginning, but after that words
follow without any pause upto the end and the pause occurs after the words as :
janani ………… Nâþa | jana pari | pa lini …
pahivambhava | ni ……….| …………
In some kritis pauses occur in the beginning but in the end of the âvartas in some and in many places
in some kritis whereas there is no pause at all in some kritis.
The kritis in câpu tâïa..... are found wit less words and more pauses occuring in different places. In
the kriti ‘Tallininnu’ in Kalyâòi râgâ in câpu tâïa..... a pause occurs at the end of the second âvarta and it is
continued in the beginning of the third âvarta.
;;Talli | Ninnu nera | …………… nammi | na nu vino | ve ..
In the kriti ‘Ninnuvinaga’ in PurvaKalyâòi râgâ in Viloma câpu tâïa....., we find karvai at the end of
the first and third âvarta.
Ninnu vina …… | …… ga mari | dikkevarun ……| na ……ru ||
The karvai is found in the second line also.
In the kriti ‘Brôvavamma’ in Mâòji râgâ in câpu tâïa..... pauses occur in many places as required
and not at a specified places.
;; Brôva vam ……|……ma …… ta … | masa me ……| le … ………………| ………….
bi ……..| ra …………na …… || ……
;; Dçvita ………|…… la le ………| ne …………bi | ra …… na ……
Similar type of kriti is ‘Nilâyatâkºi’ in Paraz râgâ. We can find pause here and there controlling the
flow of the rhythm.
Ni …… la …… ya || ta ………ksi || ni …… ve …||
jagatsa ……ksi ||
In order to control the less number of words emloyed in an âvarta in the above mentioned kritis in
câpu tâïa....., Úyâmâ Sâstri might have used these pauses wherever necessary.
Underlying Rhythm in Sahityam
Úyâmâ Sâstri has used the different combinations of svara syllables as well as sahitya syllables
to reveal the new patterns within the framework of the tâïa......In his compositions we find many words
constituting of five syllables corresponding to the tâdinginatom in a natural way.In the compositions as well
as in svarâsâhithya we find words as anudinamu, Taruòamidi, durusuganu, kamâïa.mukhi, samayamidi and
so on.His compositions have plenty of sahitya syllables which are in the same manner as the dirgha svarâs
and hrasva svarâs, paved way for different patterns within the tâïa..... framework. Here are some examples
of this type.In the kriti ‘Ô Jagadamba’ in Ânandhabhairavi râgâ in the anupallavi, the words are used in the
following manner.
(S,) (grn) (ssP) (mgpm grgm)
3 3 4 6
I Jagati gatiyai ja . nu . la kumari
(P,) (pnPpm) (M, m n p) (mpn)(ggM)||
3 3 3 3 4
te ja – muna ra ……ja | vinuta yau ||
Compositions in Misra Câpu tâïa.....
Câpu tâïa..... is a tâïa..... with two beats of unequal length for an âvartas.We find a different
magnitude of the câpu tâïa..... in the compositions of Úyâmâ Sâstri.A study of the compositions of Úyâmâ
Sâstri in misra câpu tâïa..... will reveal the different uses of the tâïa..... by the composer.He has given câpu
tâïa..... compositions in three different varieties.One is the regular misra câpu tâïa..... as takita + takâdimi
i.e. 3 + 4 gait.The second one is somewhat like viloma câpu tâïa....., but only misra câpu tâïa..... with the
eduppu as dimi + takita + taka as 2 + 3 + 2 gait.The third one is viloma câpu tâïa..... as takâdimi takita i.e.
4 + 3 gait – câpu tâïa..... in the reverse.
Laya aspect in the compositions of the other composers
Though his disciple had not shown the rhythmic aspect as extensively as Úyâmâ Sâstri, the impact
of the composer can be seen in some aspects in their kritis. Subbarâya Sâstri had composed two kritis in
câpu tâïa..... (‘Janani’ – Ritugaula, ‘NinnuSçviñcina’ – Yadukulakâmbhôji) only in slow tempo having
profession of pauses in between. Most of his compositions have sama eduppu and some have anagAþa
eduppu for all the añgâs and only in a few kritis we find different eduppus. In the kriti ‘Nannubrocutaku’
the pallavi and Caraòa start after two akºaras while the anupallavi starts on sama eduppu. Likewise only
the pallavi starts after two akºaras, the anupallavi and Caraòa on sama in the kriti ‘Dâïa...cina’ – Dhanyâsi.In
most of the madyamakâïa...sahityas figuring in the kritis he has given only patterns of sarvâïaghu and only
in the kriti ‘Ninnuvina ‘in Kalyâòi we find both sarvâïaghu pattern as well as combination of six akºaras in
the last line of the Caraòa.
nd sn r s g r s n n d d p d n |
mahe na vanadtâïa..... ci ninne goliciti |
r N dpd d M, gr – nrnr gm ||
martâïa.....gama nara vevu purari sati ||
Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri composed kritis only in âdi and rupaka tâïa...s but not in câpu tâïa... All the
compositions are in sama eduppu excepting the kriti ‘Paramapâvani’ in Aþhâòâ which starts after one
akºara in the pallavi and anupallavi. However the profusion of sahitya letters found in some kritis are
suggesting different rhythmic patterns like the compositions of Úyâmâ Sâstri.Some examples are: In the
kriti Úri Lalite in Bhairavi, the anupallavi is as follows:
[S, - d p mgm] [G R s] [n | Sd g r s ] [rg | m] [n s r g m p d] ||
[Ni la bjadâïa.....] [locani] [sa | da janita] [da – sa] [janaraksane] ||
(3) (5) (7) (7) (3) (7)
[N d G r] [n s r] [S r n s p d] [n s n d P] – [m p | d] [M p g r s r] ||
[nilamega] [sadrsa] [kundalemai [krpamvidara] [vi na ta] [lokapalini] ||
(6) (3) (7) (6) (3) (7)
Most of the compositions of Úyâmâ Sâstri and all the kritis of Subbarâya Sâstri are in Telugu
while some compositions of Úyâmâ Sâstri are in Sanskrit and Tamil. Among the compositions of Aòòâsvâmi
Sâstri more are in Sanskrit and only a few in Telugu.
A study of Úyâmâ Sâstri’s compositions reveals to us that he is an asukavi portraying his ideas
immediately. As an archaka in the temple he not only performed pujas to the deity as a profession, but also
worshipped the Goddess with his pure and pious dedication. Though there are many abstract concepts in
the Dçvicult and diverse procedures for worshipping the Goddess, Úyâmâ Sâstri chose to adopt a method
of his own and infused an emotional strength into his worship of the Goddess.The nature of sahitya found
in his kritis differs distinctly from the sahitya found in his svarajatis. In the svarajati, the sahitya is more
poetic in nature. Comparisons of the Goddess [Kamâïamukhi], some philosophical truths [Danavamardhini],
are some notable factors found in the svarajatis. Colloquial words are used less in the svarajatis but they
are in profusion in his kritis. He used spoken language as if a child is freely talking with his mother. He
addressed her as Mother and poured out his intense feelings in his kritis.
Subbarâya Sâstri’s style resembles that of his father in most of the compositions in terms of words,
ideas, description of the deity and the colloquiual idioms. Subbarâya Sâstri also uses some comparisons in
the kritis ‘Vanajâsana’ in Úri râgâ, ‘Nannubrocutaku’ in Tôdi râgâ. The words ‘Kâïâdhari’ and
‘Kâïâbharanasçkari’ respectively identify the Goddess as the one adorned by crescent moon.
In the kriti ‘NinnuSçviñcina’ in Yadukulakâmbhôji râgâ, he praises the Lord by asserting that the
devotees worshipping the Lord will have no rebirth – “I janana bâdhâlu gâïave”. This reveals his staunch
bakti towards the Lord.He further elaborates the greatness of the padasevanam of the Lord.His feet
provide not only salvation but also worldly enjoyment. There is no sorrow but only happiness prevails for
people who surrender themselves at His Lotus Feet.The first Caraòa runs as:
Bhava sâgara târakamaiyunnâdi – ni
pada sârasa yugamamu
bhuvi manava lôkulaku
bhukti mukti pradamu
Moreover he says that the Lord is pleased by nama sankirtana as ‘nidu nama bhajana sada jeyucunna
kavijanavana lola’.
Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri does not adopt any particular mudra of his own in his compositions. Most of his
compositions are written in praise of Goddess Kâmâkªi.The nature of sahitya is simple in his compositions
and in the most of the kritis names of the Goddess are found in the sahitya. In his kritis, Kâñchipuram is
referred to as Kâñchi nagara, Úri nagara, Kâñchipura, Kâñchi and so on. In the kriti ‘Mahârâjñi’ in Bilahari
he refers to Lord Brahma who installed the Bañgâru Kâmâkª i Vigraha.In the anupallavi of the kriti in
Aþhâòâ, we find a description of the Goddess as the one holding the goard, flower, sugarcane bow and an
arrow:‘Karadrita pâsangusa suma visikesu câpe’In another kriti in Mâdhyamavati râgâ he refers to Mukha
kavi who was blessed by the Goddess in the words ‘Mukha hrida Vâkpradâyini’as his father Subbarâya
Sâstri in his kriti ‘Emaninne’ in Mukhâri.She is described as the destroyer of demons like Bhandâsura and
Mahiºâsura in some kritis.
Though spoken language is employed, Úyâmâ Sâstri has adopted the essential poetic factors
found in the kriti form prevailing from the beginning of the eighteenth century onwards. The essential
elements are found in the kritis of others also.
Prâsa is the second letter repetition and Muhana is the first letter repeition between the âvartas.
Antyaprâsa is the repetition of a letter or group of letters at the end of the âvarta. The compositions of
Úyâmâ Sâstri can be divided into four categories with regard to the occurance of prâsa kºara.
1. Dirgha syllables preceding the prâsa kºara in the Caraòa alone. The total numbers of thirteen kritis
have this feature and among them four belong to the period prior to 1930.
2. Dirgha letter preceeds in the all the three añgâs. There are twenty kritis in which seven belongs to
the prior 1930 compositions.
3. Hrasva letter is found through out the composition. There are ten songs found with this element.
4. Dirgha syllable is found in pallavi and anupallavi and hrasva syllable in the Caraòa. ‘Dçvinipada’
in Kambhoji râgâ and ‘Mâyamma’ in Âhiri râgâ can be cited as examples.
In the songs of Subbarâya Sâstri also we find similar types of songs regarding the dirgha hrasva
niyama. There are songs in which hrasva letter occurs as muhana letter throughout the composition. They
1. Janani - Ritigaula
2. Vanajâsana - Úri
There are some songs in which conjunct consonants occur as Muhana letters in the pallavi and
anupallavi alone.
1. Ninnuvina - Kalyâòi
2. Nannubrocutaku - Tôdi
3. NinnuSçviñcina - Yadukulakambhoji
4. Sañkari - Bçgada
5. Úri Kamâïambike - DesyaTôdi
In the compositions of Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri also the dirgha hrasva niyama is followed in the same
manner. In some songs pallavi and anupallavi alone has dirgha letter or the vice versa.
Pallavi and anupallavi alone having dirgha letter.
1. Úri Kâmâkª i - Sârañga
2. Úri Kamçsvara - Kambhoji
3. Úri Kâñchinayike - Aúavçri
4. OEri Lalite - Bhairavi
In the song ‘Paramapavana’ in Aþhâòâ râgâ, hrasva letter is found in all the three añgâs while in
the kriti ‘Vâñcite’ in Madhyamavati râgâ, dirgha letter is found through out.
Prâsa yati
Úyâmâ Sâstri had used the method of splitting up the words i.e. antarukti for introducing prâsa yati
in some compositions. In the songs ‘Ô Jagadamba’, ‘Himacâïa.’ in Ânandhabhairavi râgâ, ‘Kâmâkªi’
in Varâïi râgâ we find antarukti used to bring the prâsa yati.
Ô Jagadamba – Ânandhabhairavi
Pallavi: OJagadamba nannu (nç…..-antarukti Vujavamuna) brôvumu …..
Anupallavi : Rajamukhi ……. (Suguna –antarukti Râjarajita) Kâmâkª i
In many of the songs of Subbarâya Sâstri we find antarukti in order to bring out prâsa yati.
For example, his mudra Kumara is used in antarukti in order to bring the yati coincidence in two of
his songs.
Úri Kamâïa.....mbike in Dçúiya Tôdi
sma rana muje yu – ku –
mâruni Karuòiñci
Sañkari in Bçgada
Karuòa bdhi vani ku ……
ma ru du nirAþambu ……
In the kriti ‘Mahârâjñi’ in Bilahari râgâ of Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri only in the Caraòa we find prâsa yati.
These words banda, kandita, tundiyira and pundarika occur as prâsa yati as well as anuprâsa s.
Varieties of Sabdâïankara called Chçkanuprâsa, repetition of a vowel or consonant or both,
Vrittanuprâsa, repetition of a single letter or letters throughout and Laþânuprâsa, repetition of a word with
the same meaning but with different concepts are collectively called anuprâsa in music compositions.
There are a handful of songs of Úyâmâ Sâstri found with this feature, there are few songs of others also in
which anuprâsa is found. Here are some instances of Úyâmâ Sâstri’s kritis.
In the kriti ‘Kanakaoeaila’ in Punnâgavarâli râgâ, the word ‘da’ is repeatedly used in the second
Caraòa as
Canda munda kandana Panditesu
Danda kodanda mandita pani
Pundarika nayanarcita pate
‘Pârvati Ninnu’ in the râgâ Kalkada is a composition in which anuprâsa is seen in many places
such as
Anupallavi : Sangitalôle, Sugunajale, and Jâïamela
I Caraòa : Banda daitya Khaòda na gandâïa.....
Mârthanda and Nerajaksi Nikhilasâksi
II Caraòa : Induvadana, Kundaradana, Sindurâgâna
and makarandavâni, Nilamega veni and Girvani.
Anuprâsa found in kritis of Subbarâya Sâstri.The kriti ‘Venkaþasaila’ for instance has beautiful
anuprâsa phrases such as vintini, kantini, mantapa, bantuda and dinamunu. Ghana mukhanu, cira munanu
are found in the Caraòa s. In the kriti ‘Emaninne’ in Mukhâri râgâ also words like vara, pura, para,
narudanu and pamarudanu are found.
Kritis of Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri are decorated with beautiful anuprâsa s. In the kriti ‘Paramapâvani’
in Aþhâòâ râgâ also we find anuprâsa s in the Caraòa with the same words: ‘Bandana Kandita banda
mahisa mukha canda daitya mandâïa ripu dandaya’ In the kriti ‘Mahârâjñi’ in Bilahari râgâ also we find
similar type of words figuring as anuprâsa is mentioned under prâsa yathi.
Antya Prâsa
In some of the compositions of Úyâmâ Sâstri we find antya prâsa. Here are some instances from the
compositons of Úyâmâ Sâstri.In ‘Sañkari Samkuru’ in Saveri râgâ antya prâsa is found in all the three
Pallavi : Akhilandesvari Vandite Gouri
Anupallavi : Kalyâòi Jagatjanani
I Caraòa : Jagadavanollasini Kapâïadarinisulini
Another type of Antya prâsa handled by Úyâmâ Sâstri is the repetition of the same word at the end
of all Caraòa s. For example, in the kriti ‘Brôvavamma’ in Mâòji râgâ, the word ‘birana’ is repeated at
the end of each Caraòa and the pallavi is taken up as ‘birana Brôvavamma’. Similarly the word ‘MAþalli’
is repeated at the end of the Caraòa s in the song ‘DçviBrôvasamayamide’ in Ciñtâmaòi râgâ, ‘brocutaku’
is repeated in the kriti ‘Ninnuvinaga’ in PurvaKalyâòi râgâ.
Antya prâsa is also found in some compositions of Subbarâya Sâstri. For example, in the kriti
‘Minanayana’ in Darbar râgâ, the Caraòas has antyaprâsa letters such as Nivasini, bhanjani, vilasini,
suvasini and vinuma, patrama, parulanu and vadanu.
Antyaprâsas are found in the kritis of Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri also. Antya prâsa s found in the kriti in
Sârañga râgâ in the last two lines of the Caraòa s.
Patita pavanidi bhakta pâlini
Paramesvari suddha senani
Pasâñkusa câpa bana dârini
Úri nagara vâsini suvâsini
Úyâmâ Sâstri born in the family of arcakas of Goddess Bañgâru Kâmâkªi followed the Dçvi
worship not only as his family profession, but as the goal and purpose of his life. He did not relish worldly
pleasures or wealth but found joy only in he worship of Goddess. In addition to the ritual worship performed
by his father and his predecessors Úyâmâ Sâstri worshipped the Goddess with his music.Goddess Bañgâru
Kâmâkªi became his mother as he thought of himself as her child.
Úyâmâ Sâstri uses the terms Mâyamma, Mâþalli, talli to refer the Goddess as his mother and
bidda, biddayani to refer himself as her child.
Songs addressing Goddess as Mother
The song in Âhiri râgâ starts with the word ‘Mâyamma Yanine Pilacite’ i.e. refer to you as my
mother. Similarly the song in Kalyâòi râgâ opens with the words ‘Talli ninnu nera namminanu’. In the kritis
Karuòajûdavamma and DçviBrôva in the râgâs Varâïi and Ciñtâmaòi, the Goddess is addressed as ‘Mâþalli’.
In addition to the word Mâyamma, Úyâmâ Sâstri adopts other meaningful terms like krupajuda,
Mâtlâda, Dayajûda and addresses the Goddess as Krupajudavamma, Mâtlâdavamma and so on.
We find such references in the following songs. The song in Varâïi begins with the word
‘Karuòajûdavamma’. In the song Karuòanidhi in Tôdi râgâ we find the words tâïajâïa namma mâyamma’
in the first Caraòa .In the compositions of Subbarâya Sâstri also we find the similar usages such as:
Mâyamma, Talli, Dikkevaramma, Tâmasamu Seyagara, Karuòajûda vamma and Kripajudavamma.
This is not met with in the kritis of Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri and his kritis mostly in Sanskrit may be the reason for
not using these words.
Other Deities in the songs of Úyâmâ Sâstri
Úyâmâ Sâstri composed most of his kritis in praise of Goddess Bañgâru Kâmâkªi. Yet there are
some compositions in praise of Goddess Dharmasamvardhini of Tiruvaiyaru, Nilâyatâkºi of Nagapattinam,
Akhilandesvari of Tiruvanaikovil, Brihadamba of Pudukottai and Minâkªi of Madurai. Besides these there
are two separate compositions, one in praise of Lord Varadaraja of Kâñchipuram [Sâminirammanave –
Ânandhabhairavi – Tanavaròâ] and Muttukumarasvami of Vaidisvaran Kovil [Sami ninne – Bçgada –
In most of these compositions we find references to the location or ‘sthâïa’ but in some songs
which are in praise of Goddess Brhadamba we do not find any such reference.
Songs of Dharmasamvardhani
There are evidences in the life history of Úyâmâ Sâstri that he had contacts with Úri Tyâgarâja, his
contemporary composer, who lived in Tiruvaiyaru a nearby village of Tanjavur according to S.Rajah (P.I.
dated 6.11.96). During his vistits to Tiruvaiyaru he might have composed some songs in praise of the
Goddess Dharmasamvardhini of the Pancanatesvara temple in Tiruvaiyaru, in which the references to the
place are seen.
Çmanimigula Tôdi Pancanata Kaveri Teramuna nivasince uma (Goddess of the
placepancanata, Which is surrounded by river Kaveri)
Durusuga Saveri Pranatharthiharu rani(another name of the Lord isPranatharthihara)
Karuòajûda Varâïi PancanatesuraniDharmasamvardhini[Queen of Lord Pancanatesa]
Songs on Minâkª i
This is the famous ksetra kritis composed by Úyâmâ Sâstri says P.Sambamurthy and interesting
circumstances which led to the composition of nine kritis in praise of Goddess Minâkªi are traceable
(Sambamurthy, P., 1962, p.83). During one of his usual visits to Pudukottai temple, a brahmin devotee
requested him to compose songs in praise of Goddess Minâkªi of Madurai. He agreed to do so but
forgot about it after his return to Tanjavur. Some time later the same man appeared before him in his dream
and reminded him about his promise. Immediately he started his journey towards Madurai and composed
songs even on the way. Though he had composed nine kritis only seven had come down to us. In all these
compositions the place is referred to in many ways.
Dçvinipada Kâmbhôji OErivelayu madhura nela KonnaKadambaganana mayuri
[Madurai is referred as Kadamba forest]Sadasivuniki rani
[Name of the Lord]
Dçvi Minanetri Sankarabarana Minanetri [eye like fish]KadambavihariOEricakrakone
nivasini[One who dwells in OEri Chakra – abode of the
Mâyamma Âhiri SundaresaruniraniMinaksamma
Marivçregati Ânandhabhairavi Madhurapurinilaye
Nannubrôva Lalita Minaksamma
Sarojadâïanetri Sankarabarana Minaksamma
Minalôcana Dhanyâsi Minalocani
When he sang his kritis in the temple, the temple authorities presented him the pattu saree worn by
the Goddess which no doubt is the highest honour conferred on any devotee. He was also gifted with a
tambura in which the figure of yali facing upright was fixed says S.Rajah.
Other Deities in the songs of others
Subbarâya Sâstri had also sung in praise of other Deities. There are kritis in praiseof
Dharmasamvardhini of Trivâdi, Kamâïamba of Tiruvarur, Minâkªi of Madurai, OEri Parthasarathy Svami of
Triplicane and Lord Venkatesvara of Tirupati. Apart from Bañgâru Kâmâkªi of Tanjavur he has composed
in praise of Goddess Kâmâkªi of Kâñchipuram and the name of the place is referred in the sâhithya. In the
kriti ‘Emaninne’ in Mukhâri he refers to the place as “Vara Kâñchipurâïaya Vasini” and as “Úri
Kâñchisadana” in the kriti ‘Sañkari Nevani’ in Bçgada. In this kriti he also refers to the great poet Mukha
the author of ‘Mukhapancasati’ (500 slokas in priase of the Goddess Kâmâkªi) who was dumb by birth
and got the power of speech by the grace of Goddess Kâmâkªi of Kâñchipuram. He signs “muni-mukhuni
brocina dallanu sâïa vini vacciti” meaning that he had come to Her on hearing the story of Mukhamuni and
Her blessings on him.In the kriti ‘Úri Kamâïamba’ sung in praise of Goddess Kamâïamba of Tiruvarur he
refers to the place as “Úri Velayupuranivasini” as the place is also called “Úri Velayupura”. In the kriti
‘Minanayana’ sung in praise of Goddess Minâkªi the place is simply referred to as “madura nagara nivasini”
and the Goddess is not addressed simply as Minâkªi but by the term ‘Minanayana Nivu’. In the kritis of
Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri also Kâñchipuram is referred to as Kabci nagara, Úri nagara, Kâñchipura, Kâñchi and
so on. In the kriti ‘Mahârâjñi’ in Bilahari he refers to Lord Brahma who installed the Bañgâru Kâmâkª i
Vaggeyakara Mudra
Mudra is the ankita of the Vaggeyakaras to identify their songs. Tirukkadaikkappu is the earliest
evidence for mudras found in Tevaram hymns. Prof. P Sambamurthy has listed different types of mudras
and defined the vaggeyakaras as svanamamudrakaras who use their own name (Sambamurthy, P., 1990,
Úyâmâ Sâstri is classified as svanamamudrakara since he used his surname ‘Úyâmâ Kriª òa’ in his
Though his surname is ‘Úyâmâ Kriª òa’ he uses this word not to suggest his name but to suggest the
name of the Goddess as the sister of Lord Kriªòa in many songs _ ÚyâmâKriª òa Sahodari or ÚyâmâKriª òa
In some compositions, with the mudra he refers to himself also as follows: Úyâmâ Kriª òa Vinuta,
Úyâmâ Kriª òa nuta and Úyâmâ Kriª òa Pujite – suggests that the composer himself is the worshipper of
the Goddess.
In some compositons he associates himself with the Goddess in different ways such as:
1. Úyâmâ Kriª òa Pâlini, Úyâmâ Kriª òa Paripâlini, Úyâmâ Kriª òa Pâlitajanani and Úyâmâ
Kriª òa Paripâlitajanani – All these mudras suggest that the Goddess is the protector of the
2. Úyâmâ Kriª òa janani – suggests that the Goddess is the Mother of the composer.
3. Úyâmâ Kriª òa Satvarade – suggests that Goddess is the
giver of boons.
Subbarâya Sâstri adopted the mudra kumara in his compositons and there is no mudra found in
the kritis of Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri.
Svarakºara is the technical element in which the sahitya syllable and the svara syllable are
identical or similar sounding words and so it is called datu-matu of samyukta âïankara
In the kritis of Úyâmâ Sâstri, we find the extensive use of svarakºaras of all types wherever possible.
We find both suddha and sucita svarakºaras in the kritis. They occur more as two or three lettered words
than as one lettered. The combinations like ‘sa-ma’, ‘pa-ri’, ‘sa-ri’, ‘ga-ma’, ‘ni-da’, ‘da-ri-sa’, ‘pa-dasa’
are some such combinations of svarakºaras found in the kritis.
1. ‘sa-ma’ Brôva samaya S m g r
Punnâgavarâli Brôva sama
2 ga-ma’ Kâmâkª i G, M, …………….
Varâïi Kâmâkªi ………
3. ‘sa-ri’ Sariyevva S;R; ……..
Bhairavi Sari yevva
As the svarâsahitya portions where profusion of sahitya is found give plenty of room for the
introduction of the svarakºaras, Úyâmâ Sâstri has used many apt svarakºara syllables in them. They are
revealed clearly as the svara and sahitya are sung one after the other. Here are some instances. We find
svarakºaras in the svarâsahitya of the kriti ‘Ninnenamminanu’ in Tôdi râgâ.
G ; ; ; (M N D ) … … … (N, S)
Ni … … … (ma hi ma) … … … (Ni ve) … … … ;
( G M) G R S (D) M G R S (N D) M G (G) R
(Kama) la bha va , (da) nu ja ri pu (nu ta) pa ta (Ka) ma
In the kriti ‘Marivçre’ in Ânandhabhairavi râgâ, we find the svara sahitya starting with suddha
svarakºara as:
P ; ; ; D P M |
Pa da yu ga …
There are many svarakºaras here and there throughout the svara sahitya.
Subbarâya Sâstri has introduced svarakºaras more in the svarâsahityasthaninhiskritis.
Some of the best examples are the svara sahityas of the compositions in the râgâs Yadukulakâmbhôji,
Mukhâri, Kalyâòi and Ritigaula start with svarakºaras
1. Yadukulakâmbhôji - s ; , R, M
Ra. ra ni
2. Mukhâri - R; R g s r s
Ra kenduvadana
3. Kalyâòi - n d m g r
nira tamuga
4. Ritigaula - n p n n s
ni ra vatika
There are some more in the svarâsahityas wherein svarakºaras are found here and there.
1. Mukhâri - s r g S ……….
sa ri ga dai ………
2. Ritigaula - ( g g r s n s ) ( s r s s n ) ( n S n n )
goliciti nira , mora luvini suvasini
A study of the sahitya aspects of the kritis of Úyâmâ Sâstri will reveal that they are simple and
elegant. Though they do not possess philosophical ideas in profusion they express the natural feelings and
tenderness of the child crying out to reach the Mother.Informal colloquial expressions are seen in many
songs, which directly address the Goddess. Many of his kritis are found with prasodic beauties such as
anuprâsa and antyaprâsa. Muhana and prâsa are also found in his kritis, but more kritis are found with the
element Prâsa yati. Subbarâya Sâstri has imbibed some of the similar usages of words, ideas and the
prosodic beauties adopted by his father. He uses Telugu in his compositions but the colloquial idiom is used
only to a certain extent. Sahitya of descriptive nature is found in many kritis [‘Emaninne’ – Mukhâri,
‘VenkAþasaila’ – HamîrKalyâòi]. Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri’s kritis are in Sanskrit with simple doxologies mixed
with poetic words. So colloquial words are not found in the sahitya. Philosophical truths and some
descriptions are found to certain extent. In the use of svarakºara it is Subbarâya Sâstri who have followed
Úyâmâ Sâstri to certain extent but not Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri.
The analysis of the kritis undertaken in this chapter views a picture of the kriti format found in the
early publications. There is an equal propotion between the âvartas in the tâïas in which they are composed.
Sangati is a feature found in some of the kritis of Úyâmâ Sâstri. With regard to citts svarâs they are found
in both madhyamakâïa as well as in the same tempo in the kriti. In the case of svara sahitya, the svara and
sahitya part if rendered only at the end of Caraòa appears as a proper mode of rendering the sahitya
portion seems to have a better link between the Caraòa than the anupallavi.
Regarding the kriti format of Subbarâya Sâstri some kritis are found with three Caraòa s and some
with one Caraòa. The kriti Venkaþaoeailawith five Caraòa s is an exception. Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri has composed
with only one Caraòa. Though they have adopted the method of introducing Sañgatis without changing the
grahasvara as Shyama Sâstri, but the increase in tempo and range of svarâs is more in Subbarâya Sâstri
and Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri. The patterns of svarâs, sahitya and ending svara pattern found in the svara sahityas
of Shyama Sâstri are also found in the svara sahityas of Subbarâya Sâstri along with some new innovations.
While Subbarâya Sâstri had adopted apparent madyamakâïa sahitya as Shyama Sâstri he has used real
madhyamakâïa sahitya also. Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri has used only real madhyamakâïa sahitya in his kritis.
Use of Úri râgâ with out‘dha’ is found in the compositions of Úyâmâ Sâstri, Subbarâya Sâstri and
Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri. Pancama and sadja varja prayogas are found in the two kritis in Tôdi râgâ and Kalyâòi
râgâ. Rare opening phrases for some songs of Úyâmâ Sâstri and Subbarâya Sâstri are found (PahiÚri –
Ânandhabhairavi, TrilôkamAþa – Paraz – OEyâmâ Sâstri and Emaninne – Mukhâri Sañkari – Bçgada,
Venkaþaoeaila– HamîrKalyâòi – Subbarâya Sâstri). After Úyâmâ Sâstri, no composer had composed more
than one kriti in a râgâ.
Regarding the use of rhythmic elements it is only Úyâmâ Sâstri who has used câpu tâïa in equal
number of compositions as Âdi and Rûpakam. Subbarâya Sâstri has used câpu tâïa in a few compositions.
Câpu tâïa is used with different formations namely 3+4 and 4+3, dimensions only by Úyâmâ Sâstri.
Different groupings of svarâs displaying patterns are suggested within the framework of the tâïa in some of
the compositons of Úyâmâ Sâstri, Subbarâya Sâstri as well as Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri
Sahitya elements found in the compositions of Úyâmâ Sâstri and Subbarâya Sâstri are followed
the rules of prosody to certain extent. Colloquial words are less in Subbarâya Sâstri while they are in
profusion in Úyâmâ Sâstri.Detailed descriptions as in the kritis of Diksitar are found in some of the kritis of
Subbarâya Sâstri.
Compositions other than kriti, which include the svarâjatis of Úyâmâ Sâstri, the varòâs of Úyâmâ
Sâstri, and Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri, a daru of Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri, are analysed.
Svarâjatis are taken to be technical compositions taught to learners after gita and before varòâs.
Svarâjati belongs to the abhyasagana group of compositions i.e. technical compositions as found in the
book of P.Sambamurthy (Sambamurthy, P. 1962, p.7). In these compositions there is a pallavi, anupallavi
and many caraòas in the form of svarâsâhityas. After the svarâ part of each caraòa, the svarâ portion of the
pallavi is repeated and after the sâhitya portion, the sâhitya of the pallavi is repeated. By increasing the
svarâ letters and sâhitya letters according to the tâïa aksaras the caraòasvarâs are sung as if in madhyamakala.
The number of avartas for the caraòasvarâs is also increased gradually. The svarâjati Sâmbasivâyenave in
Khamâs raga can be given as example for this type.
Úyâmâ Sâstri has composed three svarâjatis which are aptly called ‘Ratnatrayam i.e. three gems,
says P.Sambamurthy in his book. (Sambamurthy, P., 1962, p.87). Dr.S.Seetha in her book (Seetha, S.,
1981, pp.294-301) also called these svarâjatis as `Ratnatrayam’ and classifies them as art musical form
used in concerts.
Vidya Shankar has analysed the three svarâjatis (Vidya Shankar, 1973) in the articles published in
the Journal of Music Academy. She points out the vâdi-samvâdi svarâ combinations, svarâkºarâs, ateeta
and anahaþa eduppus and prolonged svarâs with karvai for five or seven aksaras figuring in the svarâjatis.
The svarâjatis in the ragas Kalyâòi, Mukhâri and Khamâs as found in the book of K.V.Úrinivasa
Ayyangar have the following structure. There is a pallavi, anupallavi and caraòa after which there are few
caraòa svarâs. After all the angas only the pallavi is repeated i.e. after anupalalvi, caraòa and the caraòa
svarâs. In the svarâjati ‘ Sâmbasivâyenave’ in Khamâs raga alone there is a mention of the svarâ of the
opening phrase of the pallavi is to be sung after the svarâ part of the anupallavi, caraòa and caraòasvarâs
and sâhitya of the palalvi to be sung after the sâhitya part of the caraòasvarâs. This is as follows:
S, r N, s D, n P, d |M, p M, g | M, p D, n || (S)
sambavi mano harapa | rAþa para kr | pa kara OEri || (Sam)
(Ayyangar K.V., 1977, p.63)
Dr.N.Ramanathan says that there is another variety of svarâjati, which is modelled in the structure
of a padavaròâ with pallavi, anupallavi, muktayisvarâ, caraòa and caraòasvarâs (Ramanathan, N., SVT,
1997). In this type, the muktayisvarâ passage consists of two parts i.e. pâþa syllables and svarâs. It ends
with the jati ‘ta-dingiòa-tôm’ before returning to pallavi. He mentions that the grahasvarâs of the caraòasvarâs
are in the ascending order in this type it is observed only in the svarâjati ‘Emandayânara’ in Huseni raga
composed combinely by Paccimiriam Âdiyappa and Melattur Venkaþarama Sâstri. In these svarâjatis we
find the sâhitya of the pallavi and anupallavi is spread over a number of svarâs and only in the caraòa
svarâs we find the svarâ letters and sâhitya letters are identical either long or short (dirgha or hrasva).
Moreover kâlaprâmana also differs between the purvapart and uttârapart in some svarâjatis. The purvapart
is in slow tempo while the uttârapart is in madhyamakala (Ponniah Pillai, 19 pp.34-36, 43-46).
Structure of svarâjatis of Úyâmâ Sâstri
The three svarâjatis are in the ragas Tôdi, Bhairavi and Yadukulakâmbhôji.The svarâjatis in Bhairavi
and Yadukulakâmbhôji are set in misracâpu tâïa, while the svarâjati in tôdi is set in âdi tâïa (two kalai).
Of the three svarâjatis the Tôdi svarâjati ‘Râve himagiri kumari’ in âdi tâïa is with six caraòas while
the Bhairavi and Yadukulakâmbhôji svarâjatis in misracâpu tâïa are with eight and seven caraòas respectively.
The graha svarâs for the caraòas are in the ascending order in the Bhairavi and Yadukulakhambhoji svarâjatis.
In the Tôdi svarâjati a slight change is found, the second caraòa starts in the note ‘ma’ while the 3rd, 4th
and 5th caraòas on ‘ga’.
In the earlier books which published the svarâjatis of Úyâmâ Sâstri [SK, HW) it is mentioned that
the svarâ of the pallavi should be sung after the svarâ portion of the caraòa and the sâhitya of the pallavi
after the sâhitya portion of the caraòas. As seen in the book GS (Singaracharulu Brothers, 1905, p.50) the
finishing portions of the pallavi and caraòas of the Bhairavi svarâjathi are marked as follows:
Pallavi (last avarta) M G, R s (N)
(nammiti) ni OEri kan ci (ka)
I caraòa svarâ (last avarta) D N S r (N)
(tal) li ra ksin cu (ka)
Svarâjati in Tôdi raga is the first svarâjati composed by Úyâmâ Sâstri according to the words of
his descendent S.Rajah. [P.I. dated 25.5.95]. This svarâjati was composed with not only svarâs and
sâhityas but also with appropriate jatis for the whole svarâjati. All these three are sung one by one says
Úyâmâ Sâstri’s descendent, but only svarâ and sâhitya are seen to be sung at present. In the HW. It is
published as follows:
Last two drutas of the pallavi of the Tôdi svarâjati and the opening line of the pallavi are as follows:
r G, s r n s | , n G, R n || (D ; ; N ; , r s n d p) |
navammasubami | mma ma yamma || (Ra ve….. himagiriku) |
takum taritajam | takum tari || (jam ta ….ri ta ki ta) |
After the caraòas also the similar pattern is followed. For e.g. the last druta of the first caraòa.
s r G, R n (D)
nisada brova (Ra)
takanam tari (jam)
Though S.Rajah says that this is the first svarâjati composed by Úyâmâ Sâstri, it is not found in the
books, which belong to the early thirties. The only book in which it is seen is SSP of Subbarama Diksitar,
and there too it is seen only in the anubhandam section and again without jatis. The only available source
where jatis are found is the HW of Úyâmâ Sâstri II.
In the svarâjatis of Úyâmâ Sâstri slow tempo is employed throughout the composition. Úyâmâ
Sâstri had used slow tempo for his svarjatis uniformly for all the sections by using karvai here and there. A
perfect synchronisation is also found between the svarâ letters and sâhitya letters inhis svarâjatis.
Generally in all the three svarâjatis mandra sthayi is used in the pallavi which paves way for the
elaorate delineation of the raga and a gradual rise in the sthayis as well as number or avartas are found in
the subsequent caraòas.
Tôdi raga Svarâjati - ‘Râve’
The pallavi of the svarâjati ‘Râve’ begins in the mandra sthayi dirgha dhaivAþa, which is sung with
kampita gamaka. The caraòas either end in mandra sthayi nisada or madhya sthayi sadja with a natural
lead to the pallavi as n (D) or s ( D ).The range of the svarâs increase gradually in sthayi. In the first and
second caraòa svarâs the lower limit is ‘mandra dha’ and upper limit is madhya ma’. In the second and
third caraòa svarâs the lower limit is mandra ni and upper limit is madhya ni while the fifth svarâ touches
‘târa ga’ in the finishing phrase as dgrnD, p |, mG Rs ||. The second caraòasvarâ start with madhyama while
the other three caraòasvarâs start on ‘madhya ga’. The first caraòasvarâ start on ‘mandra da’ and the last
on ‘madhya da’. The melodic movement of the last svarâ also centers between ‘madhya ma’ and ‘târa ri’,
only in the final phrase comes down to mandrasthayi svarâs as ‘PmG, Rs’. In the third, fourth and fifth
svarâs that start on the svarâ ‘ga’, stress and shake is given to the svarâ in different ways. ‘GmP’,
‘GmDm’ in these prayogas dirgha kampita ‘ga’ is sung. Flattened ga is found in the prayogas ‘Grs’, ‘rgs,’
‘ndmG’ and ‘mgrs’. ‘Ga’ is sung as errajaru in both mandrasthayi to madhya sthayi and târasthayi in the
fifth svarâ as ‘d/GsrnS’ and ‘d/grnD’.
Bhairavi raga svarâjati - ‘Kâmâkª i ’
In this svarâjati the eight caraòasvarâs start on the sapta svarâs in the ascending order as s, r, g, m,
p, d, n and s. The svarâs end mostly or rsabhasvarâ and the pallavi is taken as g r \ N or s r \ N. Only the
third and fourth caraòas end sadja as g r s and m g r s. The number of the avartas as well as the range of
svarâs increases gradually from the first caraòa passage to the last caraòa passage. The first caraòa has
four avartas and the last caraòasvarâ has sixteen avartas. The melodic range in the first caraòasvarâ is from
the mandra madhyama to madhya rsabha gradual increase in the sthayi is noticed in the subsequent
caraòasvarâs. In the second caraòa svarâ the lower limit raises to ‘mandra dha’ and the svarâ sancaras
are framed upto ‘madhya ma’. In the next two caraòa svarâs the sancaras does not go below mandra ‘ni’
while the upper limit is increased to ‘târa ri’ and ‘târa ga’. The seventh and eighth caraòa svarâs touch
‘târa ma’ while the svarâsancaras cover madhya and târasthayi in many places occasionally touching
mandrasthayi svarâs also.
Yadukulakâmbhôji raga Svarâjati - ‘Kâmâkªi’
This svarâjati is a lengthy one with eleven caraòas in all the versions of the published books and
also in the HW of Úyâmâ Sâstri II, but in SSP of Subbarama Diksitar there are only 10 caraòas. This has
been referred in fourth chapter Page no.190.
In this svarâjati also the starting svarâs of the caraòas are in the ascending order. This raga has
only five svarâs in the arohana [s r m p d], so more than one caraòa start on the same svarâ. There are
two caraòas starting on the svarâs sadja rsabha and dhaivAþa and three on pancama. There is only one
caraòa each starting on the svarâ madhyama and târa sadja. The nyasa svarâs of the caraòas are mostly
‘ga’ and ‘ri’ and the caraòas either end as `srg’, `rmg’, `dpmg’, `pmgr’, `Gr,mggr’ and `dp/gr’. Only one
caraòa i.e. the 9th one ends on the svarâ dha as `nd pd’. In the first seven caraòasvarâs the melodic
movement in the mandrasthayi touches `mandra pa’ and the upper limit only increases gradually as `ma’,
`da’, `ni’ and `sa’. In the eighth caraòa alone thelower limit happens to be `madhya sa‘ and in thenext three
caraòa svarâs also `mandra pa’ is included in the svarâ sancaras. The last caraòasvarâ gives the climax of
the raga as mentioned in her book by Dr.S.Seetha (Seetha, S., 1981, p.301).
Patterns of Svarâs found in the the svarâjatis of Úyâmâ Sâstri
We find sadja, pancama varja prayogas in the Tôdi svarâjai. They are varja and also datu prayogas.
[gmndm, gmdm, ndmG, mgrnD, rnd ] – varja, [ dgrnD gdMgrn ] - datu.
In the first svarâ it is a combination of a misram and a tisram as [dnsrG,] [-Rn] while it is simply a
misram in the second svarâ as [dnsrgrn]
We find a number of svarâ patterns in the Bhairavi svarâjati also. Though the composition is in
regular misra câpu tâïa, we find patterns of svarâs in the vilomakrama (i.e. reverse order 4+3). The third
caraòa ends with this pattern as ‘NNdP | PMgrs ||’
In the seventh caraòa we find the ending as
( N d p g R ] [ ; s n d P ] [ ; g r (N) ]
The eighth caraòa ends in a combination of ‘misram’ as
m G R g r || S r N d p || m G R g r ||.
In the svarâjati in Yadukulakâmbhôji raga svarâs are sung in two octaves. Here is an instance in the
fifth svarâ ‘ppddS/ppddS’. We see the erra jaru gamaka also in this svarâ combination. In a similar way
different patterns of svarâs are also sung in two octaves with an upward glide.
s n d p || D , | ; / D || P m , G r || - 3rd svarâ
s n d p | d D | ; / d d | p p m | m g g r || - 4th svarâ
There are svarâs sung in two octaves with a downward glide also.
s s r s s R || , \ p p d d S || - 5th Svarâ
m p d d | S , \ ; P / r s n d p m g - 6th Svarâ – here both the jarus are found
p d r S | \ ; m p d P || - 8th Svarâ
Prathyâhaþa gamaka, which is another characteristic gamaka of Yadukulakâmbhôji raga, is found
in some places.
1. d d p p m m g g r - 4th Svarâ
2. n d d p m g r - 8th Svarâ
3. s n n d d p m - 8th Svarâ
In this svarjathi also we find some datu svarâ prayogas as ‘Mgsr’, ‘pmgsr’, ‘pndmp’, ‘rpmg’,
‘ndmp’ and ‘srgS’.
The finishing svarâs of the caraòasvarâs before taking up the pallavi is interesting to note.
In many svarâs we find svarâs in all the three octaves occurring as finishing svarâs.
The sixth svarâ finishes as
– P | dsrmpdd | S ; , P|| r s n d p m g ||.
In the seventh svarâ the following svarâs figure –
pp | dds srmp | D ; , pd | rsndpmg.
In the eighth svarâ we find the ending as:
[ p d | r S ; ] [ m p | d p ; ] [ m g || + [S , ; ]
In the ninth caraòa the last two avartas cover the three octave svarâs as ‘grsndpm | grs ndpd ||+’
Mention must be made of a distinct and characteristic sâhitya aspects of the svarâjatis of Úyâmâ
Sâstri. He employs a high-flown language in svarâjatis when compared to the simple colloqual style
adopted in the kritis. The speech idiom is also interspersed with the poetical description of the Goddess.The
three svarâjatis exihibit this aspect of sâhitya
The following chart furnishes the comparisons and philosophical truths found in
Sâhitya Aspects
Comparisons Name of the svarjati Actual words
eyes are compared to Bhairavi kuvalayanayana
lotus flower Yadukulakâmbhôji kamaladalasama
gait compared to the Tôdi gajagamana
gait of elephant Bhairavi madamattagajagamana
Yadukulakâmbhôji madagajagamana
Neck compared to Tôdi daragala
conch. Bhairvai kambugala
Teeth compared to Tôdi maniradana
perals and jasmine flower Bhairavi kundaradana
Face compared to Bhairavi viduvadana
the moon Yadukulakâmbhôji sasadhara nibhavadana
Philosophical Trutus Name of the svarjati Actual words
Protector of the universe Yadukulakâmbhôji sarasijasanaharisa vinuta pada
suramunidrulace tanu ninu
Protector of the devotees Tôdi natajana paripalini
Bhairavi nismarana mâdilo
Yadukulakâmbhôji dalacinajana dulaku bahu
manavulakella phala mosage
Destroyer of sins Yadukulakâmbhôji patakamulanu vâdiga
Bhairavi patakamulanudircci
Destroyer of demons Tôdi madamatta mahisadanava mardani
Bhairavi madadanuja varanamrgen
drarcita kalusadahana
The greatness of the Goddess as exhibited in the vedas is described as ‘srtutulumoralidaga’ and
`vedamulu moralidagana’ in the above-mentioned svarâjatis. Úyâmâ Sâstri uses the word `dorayanucu
vedamulu moralidaga’. Here the word `dora’ normally used to refer male personalities is used to signify the
Goddess is a great person.
Thus the profusion of philosophical truths and poetic comparisons found in the above chart reveals
the nature of sâhitya is different from the kritis. At the same time as found in the kritis, he uses informal,
colloquial expressions considering himself as Her son, ‘Sutudamma’. He requests her to guard him against
trials and tribulations. Here are some instances:
Abhimanâmuledânâpai Devi
parâkelane brôvave ipudu
cintalu vevega dirccamma
mora vinada parâkelanamma
Savaraksaras found in the svarâjatis of Úyâmâ Sâstri
Svarâjatis with many caraòas as svarâsâhityas give plenty of scope for introducing svarâkºarâs.
Both suddha and sucita svarâkºarâs are found in the three svarâjatis as the svarâ and sâhitya are sung one
by one; we are able to understand the svarâkºarâ well in the svarâ sâhityas of the svarâjati. The svarâkºarâ
syllables occur in between other letters as a single letter in many places and also as combined with two or
thre letters. The svarâ syllables ‘ma’, ‘ni’, ‘pa’, ‘sa’ are frequently used as single syllables as the svarâkºarâ
syllables while the grouping of two or three are found by combining ‘gm’ ‘gmp’, ‘gmd’, ‘srm’, ‘rs’ and ‘sr’.
Examples of single letters
In the last caraòa of the Tôdi svarâjati the svarâ ni and pa fit in as svarâkºarâ.
R s n s P , D , N , P m G ,
cinta nuve kalyâ ni pâ da me
The following chart reveals the svarâkºarâs.
Svarâs used Place Svarâkºarâ syllables
ri – sa 3rd caraòa S R Sha ri sa
pa – ma 7th caraòa d p m gsu bha mo sa
pa – da - sa 10th caraòa D s p d Sni du pa da Sa
ri – ma 11th caraòa s r M mta ra mamma
We find varòâs among the compositions of Úyâmâ Sâstri, and Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri. There are two
varòâs of Úyâmâ Sâstri found in the early publications. Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri’s three varòâs are found in HW.
The varòâs are:
Name Raga Tâïa Composer Source
Sâminirammanave Anandabhairavi Khaòda Aþa Úyâmâ Sâstri SSP (pp.1498-1504)
Dayanidhe Bçgada Âdi Úyâmâ Sâstri SKM (p.53)
Karuòa kaþaksi Tôdi Âdi Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri HW (pp.106-107)
Ninnçkôri Kâmbhôji Aþa Aòòâsvâmi SaÚri HW (pp.109-111)
Kacciyuvaranga OEri Âdi Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri HW (pp.107-108)
Sâhitya found in the Varòâs
All these varòâs are tanavaròâs yet in the varòâ ‘Sâminirammanave’ in Ânandhabhairavi raga of
Úyâmâ Sâstri the sâhitya alone resembles a padavaròâ. This is sung by the nayaki to her sakhi requesting
her to describe her plights to Lord Varadaraja of Kâñchipuram, who is the nayaka of this varòâ. We find
the ksetra mudra as ‘Kâñchi vasudaina Úri Varadarajuni’ in the anupallavi. The Telugu language as used in
this varòâ is different from the one found in his kritis. The use of words of poetic nature, resembling the
svarâjatis, gives a complex form to the language as against the simple colloquial style of Úyâmâ Sâstri.
There are descriptions of the Lord such as kamini kanna, who gave birth to Manmatha,
gunavantudaina – meritorious one, sârasa nayana – eyes like Lotus, sâmaja gamana – Elephant gaited –
visâlajhagana – with heavy hips and so on.
The varòâ ‘Dayanidhe’ in Bçgada raga of Úyâmâ Sâstri in praise of Goddess Râjarâjesvari in
simple diction.In the pallavi of the varòâ itself we find the mudra of the composer in the second avarta. The
actual words start as atitaeduppu from the first avarta as “sa || da syamakrsna”. Usually the mudra of the
vaggeyakara will figure in the anupallavi of the varòâ.
The varòâ ‘Karuòa kaþaksi’ in Tôdi raga of Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri is in praise of Goddess Kâmâkª i
and the other two ‘Kacciyuvarnga’ in OEri raga and ‘Ninnçkôri’ in Kâmbhôji raga are in praise of his
patron Kacci Kalyanaranga, the zamindar of Udayarpalayam.
Structure of the varòâs
Varòâ though similar to Svarâjati (pertaining to the realm of dance) in structure has evolved with a
separate pallavi, anupallavi and muktayisvarâ collectively known as purvanga. The uttâranga part consists
of caraòa and caraòa svarâs and sâhitya.
In the incomplete version of the varòâ Sâminirammanave in Ânandhabhairavi raga seen in the
notebook of Úyâmâ Sâstri II there is no sâhitya for the ettugadasvarâ. The caraòa and caraòasvarâs are
also missing. But in other books sâhitya is found for ettugadasvarâ and some caraòa svarâs. Among the
five caraòasvarâs, the first, fourth and fifth caraòa svarâs alone have sâhitya portions. The four caraòasvarâs
have one avarta while the last one has two avartas. There is an anubandha or continuing portion after the
last caraòasvarâ. After singing the last caraòa svarâ and sâhitya the ettugada pallavi is sung, then the
anubandha is sung and finally the varòâ is concluded with the singing of the pallavi.
The varòâ ‘Dayanidhe’ in Bçgada raga is not found in the H.W. of Úyâmâ Sâstri II. This varòâ as
found in the book of A.Sundaram Ayyar is in the regular structure of a tana varòâ with pallavi, anupallavi
and muktayi svarâ in the purvanga and the uttâranga consists of a caraòa and four ettugada svarâs. Yet we
find sâhitya for the muktayi svarâ and a second avarta for the caraòa to be sung after the last ettugada
svarâ in the book of Vidya Shankar (Vidya Shankar, 1989, pp.136-137).
Among the three varòâs of Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri, two are in âdi tâïa and one in Aþa tâïa. In the two
varòâs of Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri in the ragas Úri and Kâmbhôji only we find a second line of the caraòa, which
is sung after the last ettugadasvarâ and after which the muktayisvarâ is sung, and the pallavi is sung to
complete the varòâ. In the varòâ ‘Ninnçkôri’ in Kâmbhôji raga there are four avartas in the caraòa while
the first two avartas have separate music, the other two avartas are sung to the same music as anupallavi.
In the varòâ ‘Kacciyuvaranga’ in OEriraga also has two avartas with separate melodic structure. In the
varòâ ‘Karuòa kaþaksi’ in tôdi raga there are three sangatis for the caraòa and atita eduppu i.e., after four
aksars which is a rare feature in âdi tâïa varòâs. The varòâ ‘Karuòa kaþaksi’ in Tôdi raga has three
caraòasvarâs in which the first one has one avarta, second one two avartas and the third one has four
avartas. In the varòâ ‘Kacciyuvaranga’ in Úri raga all the four caraòasvarâs have two avartas each.
Normally the first two caraòasvarâs will be of only one avarta in âdi tâïa varòâs. In the varòâ ‘Ninnçkôri’
in Kâmbhôji raga, Aþa tâïa which has eight caraòasvarâs, the first four caraòasvarâs have one avarta each
and the second four caraòasvarâs have two avartas each.
Melodic aspects of the Varòâs
The graha svarâs for various angas of this varòâ ‘Sâmini’ in Ânandhabhairavi raga are sadja for
pallavi, anupallavi and muktayisvarâ. The caraòa starts as ‘mgM gmP’ after the ending phrase ‘P, dpmgg’
the caraòa is taken as ‘gg(M)’. While first and second ettugada svarâs, start on pa, third and fourth svarâs
on madhyama and the fifth svarâ on nisada. The ending phrases of the svarâs have a natural link with
caraòa. We can find different svarâs as the ending notes. While the first and last svarâs end as ‘sgrgg’, the
second ends as ‘pmgrn’, third as, ‘SNDp’ and the fourth as ‘M, Psnd’ and the graha svarâ ‘M’ is sung with
a glide from g, n, p and d.
Both the nisadas are used in the varòâ ‘Dayânide’ in Bçgada raga. The anyasvarâ Kaisiki nisada
is used only in the opening phrase as ‘dpmpdndp’. The pallavi alone starts with dha while the anupallavi
and ettugadasvarâ start on ma; ettugadapallavi and the first two svarâs start on ‘pa’ thrid one on ‘ga’ and
the last on târa sa. Though in many varòâs we find similarity in the opening svarâs of the pallavi and the
ettugadasvarâ here it is missing.
In the three varòâs of Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri also we find that the grahasvarâs of the pallavi and
muktayisvarâ are same. This is a regular feature in most of the varòâs mentioned in the book of Lalita
Ramakrishna (Lalita Ramakrishna, 1991, p.27).
Name of the Varòâ Opening phrase of Opening phrase of the
the pallavi muktayi svarâ
1. Karuòa kaþaksi GG rg rm M ; gg rr nn
– Tôdi Karuòa
2. Kacciyuvaranga- R p pmpm RG RS R ; ; rg rr ss
OEri Kacci…….. yuvaranga
3. Ninnçkôri– P D S ; R ; pp dd s – dd s
Kâmbhôji Ni..nne ko….
Patterns of Svarâs
Sâmini – Ânandhabhairavi
Different patterns of svarâs are found in this varòâ Úyâmâ Sâstri. Before taking up the caraòa we
find the following svarâ patterns.
Ns – Grgg – M, -Psnd [4th svarâ]
Sndp – M, grs – N, sgrgg [5th svarâ]
In the last ettugadasvarâ the svarâs are combined with the mandrasthayi ni in decreasing order of
pitch as
Nspmgrs – nsmgrs - nsggm
Dayanidhe’ – Bçgada raga
Svarâs in the pattern of samayati are found in the muktayi svarâ and third ettugadasvarâ in this
mgmr – sgrg – mpdm – pgmr – gmpd - Muktayi svarâ
Mgr – Sgr – Gmg – Mpm - III svarâ
In the last svarâ we find the following svarâ pattern such as yati
Visesa prayoga ‘mMgrs – nNdp – mMgrs’ figuring in end of the muktayi svarâ reveal the ragabhava
and gives a rhythmic stress for concluding the muktayi svarâ along with the svarâs grgmp.
Moreover svarâs in different combinations are also found in this varòâ.
3 + 5 - grs / Sndp,
5 + 3 - Pmgm - rgm
8 + 6 - pmpd Ndp - MgrS
6 + 6 - MgrS – grGmg
Patterns of svarâs found in the varòâs of Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri
Karuòa kaþaksi - Tôdi
In this varòâ the svarâ pancama is sparingly used. We find the pancama svarâ once in the pallavi,
twice in the anupallavi, once in the caraòa and twice in the sangatis of the caraòa. The first and second
caraòa svarâ and the muktayisvarâ do not have prayogas with pancama while ‘pa’ is used in some places
in the last svarâ.
Jantasvarâs found in this varòâ are as follows:
Pallavi : rr gg mm gg rr ss nn gg
Muktayi svarâ : gg rr nn gg rr ss
The speciality of this varòâ lies in the profusion of datu svarâ prayogas. The second caraòa is full
of datu svarâs such as:
(grnr – rn) ss – (nr nr ndng)|
rgM grsn | (dgrm G;) ||
mggrs (dmgm) dN dmdn |
Snd Dmg | ,rs g(mdnd) ||(mgrg) +
In the muktayi svarâ we find beautiful combinations of svarâs resembling the alankaras:
‘gg rr nn’ – ‘gg rr ss ‘ and ‘rRgG’ – ‘rRmM’.
The ending svarâs are as follows:
grnD – SndmG – rsnD – nsr
(5) (7) (5) (3)
Kacciyuvaranga – OEri raga
In this varòâ beauty lies in the delineation of dirgha svarâs with karvai. Even in the pallavi the dirgha
svarâs are used, continuously in the second line.
R; pmpm RG RS | nP,NN | S ; ; ; ||
NN SR MP N; | Nsn PM | RG grrs||
The anupallavi also starts with dirgha svarâs.
Ninnçkôri – Kâmbhôji raga
The varòâ in Kâmbhôji raga is also constructed with janta svarâs, datu svarâs, rare prayogas and
combinations of svarâs in different groups.
janta svarâs are also found throughout the varòâ.
Anupallavi : ppdd ssrr ggrr
Muktayi svarâ : ppdds
Caraòa : mmppddnn and nnddpp
4th Caraòasvarâ : pp ddssrr ggmmgr
Grouping of svarâs found in this varòâ are as follows :
Pallavi : gmggrs – rgrrsn
(6) (6)
Muktayi svarâ : drR – dGgrs – ppdds – ddssr
(4) (6) (5) (5)
Finishing svarâ : rS – sndmp Dp
(of the mukthayi svarâ) (3) (5) (3)
mgr - srgS / sndpm
(3) (5) (5)
Third svarâ : pdsD, - dsrS, - sdsrg
(6) (6) (5)
Seventh svarâ : pdrSs – mpdPp – mgrSs – rGMpd +
(6) (6) (6) (8)
Gamakas found in the varòâs
The varòâ ‘Sâmininne’ opens with the key phrase of Ânandhabhairavi raga i.e. the Errajaru
prayoga as ‘s/dpmgm’ in the pallavi and also in the anupallavi as ‘ss/dpm’ as published in SSP of Subbarama
Diksitar. This jaru prayoga is not only found as the opening phrase but also in the other parts of the
The pratyahaþa gamaka svarâs lend beauty to the varòâ ‘Ninnçkôri’ in Kâmbhôji of Aòòâsvâmi
Sâstri. It is found at the end of the pallavi : ‘grrs rssn’. The third caraòasvarâ contains : rgmg ‘grrs’ and
srsn ‘pdds’; in the fifth svarâ : ‘nddp’ – ‘dppm’ – pmmg and the seventh svarâ : ‘grrs rssn’ and ‘dnnd dppd’
– ‘dppm – mppm’. The last svarâ starts with pratyahaþa gamaka : pdds. In the second avarta we find a
line continuously : ‘srrg mggr rssn nddp’.
Pratyahaþa gamaka prayogas are found in the last caraòasvarâ of ‘Karuòa kaþaksi’ in Tôdi raga as
follows :
‘nddn’, ‘nddm’ and ‘mggr’
We find the svarâkºarâ in many places in the varòâs of Úyâmâ Sâstri as in the svarâjatis.
In the two varòâs svarâkºarâ syllables are found in the beginning as well as in some places. Both
suddha and sucita svarâkºarâs are found in them. In the varòâ in Ânandhabhairavi raga svarâkºarâs are
found in the beginning of pallavi, anupallavi and caraòa.
The places wherein suddha svarâkºarâs occur :
Pallavi Anupallavi Caraòa
s d p m M ; ; p m p S M g
sa . . . ma . . kan . . ci ma ga
The fourth caraòasvarâ starts with svarâkºarâ syllables where three words are combined and it is
found in another place also.
M ; m g - - - - - - - - m g G, g S ; s
ma ma gu (na la So) mu ni Ka Ka Sa mi
The varòâ ‘Dayanidhe’ in Bçgada raga also starts with suddha svarâkºarâ in all the three angas
Pallavi Anupallavi Caraòa
d p m p d - n P d p - s P D P
da - ya . . ni bha . . ya Pa ra ma
The varòâ in Tôdi raga of Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri starts with the svarâkºarâ as :
G G rg
Ka ru na
The caraòa of the varòâ in Kâmbhôji starts in the svarâ :
M G M ;
Ma no …
Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri lived in the later half of the 19th century when many varòâs were composed
without the section called ‘anubandha’ he followed the footsteps of his grandfather and composed these
varòâs with `anubandha’. In the grouping of some svarâs with a special rhythmic finish one can see similarity
between the varòâs of Úyâmâ Sâstri and Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri.Prayogas without pancama in the Tôdi raga
varòâ resembles the svarâjati ‘Râve’ of Úyâmâ Sâstri.He has also composed the Úriraga varòâ without
using dhaivAþa svarâ.He has attempted some new devices in tana varòâs such as : eduppu after four
aksaras in the caraòa of the Tôdi varòâ more than one avarta for the caraòa s in the varòâs in Úriraga and
Kâmbhôji raga, and the long ettugadasvarâs numbering eight in Kâmbhôji varòâ.
Kaminciyunnâdira – Kedaragaula - Rupaka tâïa
Ritha Rajan has mentioned that there are two darus in the ragas Kedaragaula and
Yadukulakâmbhôji.(JMA, 1983, p.197). But only Kedaragaula is found in the book GS (Singaracharulu
Brothers, -1905, p.169). Yet the daru in Kedaragaula raga alone is found in HW with notation.
The composition which is known as daru in Kedaragaula is an extensive compsosition of Aòòâsvâmi
Sâstri. The reason for desiging this composition as daru is not clear. This resembles a kriti with a lot of
sangatis and svarâsâhityas, but the words are in madhurabhava in praise of his patron, the zamindar of
Udayarpalayam, this might be termed this as a daru. This is the longest compositon with sixteen avartas in
the carna in rupaka tâïa. Apart from the set sangatis this song has a cittasvarâsâhitya for another sixteen
avartas. We find dirgha svarâs in the cittasvarâs like his varòâ in Úri raga. Similar types of svarâs are found
here (see Appendix III).
The first twleve avartas are in slow tepo and the rest of the avartas set in real madhyamakala
ending gwith the makuta svarâ.
r m G r g R s n s r | g r s n d p m p N s r ||
Mahi lo taruni janasukha | karadala yuga ra ti kantaru ||
S, n d p, P, m g r | S, n d p ns r m p d ||
ni vegati svan tamu | pre du ni ra ta. mu kainu ||
The svarâjathi has attained a new shape in the hands of Úyâmâ Sâstri.
(a) The grahasvarâs of the caraòas found in the ascending order are also seen the svarâjatis
belonging to the sphere of dance also
b) With the special features as dirgha svarâs sung with gamaka, slow tempo and grouping of
svarâs in various patterns svarâjatis of Úyâmâ Sâstri have been raised to the level of art
The varòâs of Úyâmâ Sâstri and Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri are in the model of early Varòâ with anubandha
section. Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri has made innovations in his three varòâs by introducing
(a) a rare anagþa eduppu for the caraòa in Âdi tâïa varòâ.
(b) An ettugada pallavi of more than one avarta duration.
(c) Sangatis in varòâs in ettugada pallavi.
(d) Daru, a form not used by other four composers, resembling a kriti with many sangatis and
svarâsâhitya wherein dual tempo is found.
There are some differences among the compositons of Úyâmâ Sâstri published prior to 1930 and
HW regarding sâhitya, number of Caraòas, omission or addition of cittaswara and svarâsâhityas. There
are also some songs of the second period found with differences regarding melodic movement, râgâs, tâïas
along with some of the above; both in the publications and in the rendition. We find differences in rendition
in the compositions published between 1930 and 1970. Yet in the development of sañgatis we find a
gradual growth from the 1859 to the present day. There are many differences which arise due to râgâs or
râgâlaksanas and tâïa also.
Songs taken up for discussion for the first category are as follows:
1. Tallininnunera - Kalyâòi - Câpu
2. Ninnuvinaga - PurvaKalyâòi - Câpu
3. BiranaVarâïicci - Kalyâòi - Rûpakam
4. Marivçre - Ânandhabhairavi - Câpu
5. Brôvavamma - Mâòji - Câpu
6. Çmanimigula - Tôdi - Âdi
7. Dçvi Ni pada - Kambhoji - Âdi
8. Janani - Úavçri - Âdi
9. Minalôcana - Dhanyâsi - Câpu
10. Karuòajûda - Varâïi - Câpu
11. Kâmâkª i - Varâïi - Câpu
12. Sañkari - Kalyâòi - Aþa
In some songs mentioned above there are changes only in the development of sañgatis [2, 5 and
8]. In the song ‘Tallininnu’ structural changes occur with the grahasvara, sañgatis and the eduppu in the
tâïa. In the song ‘Çmanimigula’ changes in melodic movement and sâhitya are found. In the songs 7 and 12
slight changes in the svarâs are found here and there and in the songs 9 to 11, changes occur in the
placement of syllables of words in the tâïa âvarta thereby changing the structure.
Graha svara change found in ‘Tallininnu’ – Kalyâòi
In the early publications SSPS and SR have been the sources for the notations taken for analysis.
In both the books the opening phrase is as follows: (Pandit, Nadamuni, 1914, p.322).
, , S , S | R R g G || , , P , M || G G r M g || gr +
Talli | ninunera || nam mi|| nanu vina || ve
The graha svara is changed as ‘Rgr snS’ from the next sangati onwards and it is kept constant for
the remaining sañgatis. This may be the reason of the change in the grahasvara of the opening line found in
the later books.
Graha svara as found in HW (Syama Satri II, p.20)
, , * r s Ns|| R R g G || P,,,,p | G G r P || G *
Tal. li || ninu nera || nammi | nanu vina || ve *
Further development in the opening phrase can be seen in oral tradition.OEri D K Jayaraman has
sung this as:
R;, S || R R g G
Tal. li || ninnunera
(Audio Vedavalli, M.B., 1998, p.330) giving four-akºara kârvai to the grahasvara.
There are some songs of Úyâmâ Sâstri in which structural changes occur in the development of
sangati (melodic variations) and are seen the pallavi, anupallavi or Caraòa. Some songs have been taken
up in which in the later editions either additional sañgatis have come in the or the duration of the passage
has got extended in the sangati. In the song ‘Brôvavamma’ in Mâòji râgâ though there are more number of
sañgatis found in HW of Úyâmâ Sâstri II, the range and place of occurrence of sangati do not change
much. But in the later books and also in oral trâditions madhyamakâla svarâs covering three octaves are
Brôvavamma - Mâòji râgâ
‘Brôvavamma’ in Mâòji râgâ is the song that has a maximum number of sañgatis in the notation of
Úyâmâ Sâstri II.It has twelve sañgatis in the pallavi. The sañgatis actually start from the place ‘Dçvi tâ ïa
In the third sangati, we find a change in the place ‘ne’ as:
R, m pdp | m m g; gp | m G R S ||
(Dçvi tâ] ïa ne …. | ye …..... bi| râ …… na ||
In the next step the svarâs of the previous sangati are retained for words ‘Dçvitâïa’ and changes
occur in the place ‘neye’. We find madhyamakâlasvarâs and combinations of jaru in the next three variations.
1. dn sn nddp | pm mG .
ne ...……| ye ………
2. S , \ P | G
ne . | ye
3. m pdp / sndp | mg ,
ne …… … … | ye
In other books this song is seen with madhyamakâlasañgatis developed for the words ‘birana’ but
here sañgatis are developed for the worlds ‘Dçvitâïa’ and not in ‘birana’. The last sangati which happens
to be in madhyamakâla as found in the various books is to be mentioned here.
SKM (Ayyar Sundaram. A., 1988, p.39).
n g r r Sn nd | d P m p d n s r g r ||
De . . vi . . tâ | ï a ne . . . . . . . . . ||
s n d p m g ; , m d | p m G R s g r|| sr+
. . . . . . . . . . . bi . | râ . . . . . . na ||
, nsR rSn nd || dP mpdnsrgr ; | sndpmg Gmgrs || nndpggrs
de . . vi . . tâ || ï a . le . . . . . . . . | ne . . . . bi . . . .|| râ . . . . . .
sndpmg || rs+
na. . . . . . . . . SSAU (Ramanathan, S., 1985, p.50)
Though the svarâs are identical for the words ‘lenebirana’ as in the above book they are slightly
different in the place `Dçvitâïa’ in the book SSKN (N.C.Parthasarathy, 1970, p.114). They are as follows:
; ; N | N ; N ; || N D P |
de | vi tâ || ïa….| …….
KMM (Ayyangar, Ranagaramanuja, 1948, p.89).
dn Srg R,g rSn rssn || nDdP mpdn srgm ||
de . . . . . . vi . tâ . .|| . . . ïa ne . . . . . . . ||
grsndp mgrg mpdn || Srs s Pdp p mgpm dpmg || rs +
. . . . . . . . . . . . . bi || râ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . na || . . .
In the book SSC.The above mentioned sañgatis in the place birana are missing but the last sangati
varies in the place Dçvitâïane. :
(Vidya Shankar, 1989, p.293).
P g R rrS | n d p mgrs / m g r s |
de . vi tâ . | . . ïa. . le . . . . . . . . .|
s n d p M, g G M p d P,d |ppmg,m srgr || rs+
ne . . . . . . . . . . bi . . . . . |râ . . . . . na . || . .
Here we find less number of madhyamakâlasvarâs in the first one and maximum in the second.The
ranges of the svarâs also vary in the above illustrations.In the first one we find the range goes upto
‘mpdnsrgrsndp’ while it is ‘mpdnS; sndpmg’ in the second illustration.The third and fourth illustrations
show further developments while the range goes upto ‘srgm grsn’ in the third and it is octave svarâs in the
fourth ‘mgrs / mgrs’. In the rendition of the song by Smt. D K Pattammal (Audio Pattammal I PI 15.7.97)
and Smt. R Vedavalli (audio SVT. 26.4.87) is in slow tempo without many madhyamakâla sañgatis. It also
resembles the HW notation of Úyâmâ Sâstri II. This song sung by Smt. Brinda was heard and notated
from Sampradaya (audio Sampradaya Cassette No.0413-Side-B). In this we find madhyamakâla sañgatis
in the pallavi. The last sangati of the pallavi for the word ‘tâïane’ figures thus:
mpdnsrgr | sndpmgrg mpdpmg | rg/gmgrsndp mgrs ||
le . . . . . . .| ne . . . . . . . . . . .bi râ. . . . . . na . .||
In another version sung by Smt. Sowmya (audio SVT 16.4.91).This sangati is changed as:
ggrs nndp/ggrs sndp mgrs
bi . . . . . . . râ . .na . . . . . . (Brôva)
Marivçre - Ânandhabhairavi
Like ‘Brôvavamma’, ‘Marivçre’ in Ânandhabhairavi is another song, which has acquired changes
in the sañgatis. In the krti, we find many sañgatis.
The notation in the H.W. runs like this:
p P p; | p , n P m | g M P n p M p m | g R G M ||
mari ve | ye . .. . re| gati ye . .. . va . . . | ram . ma ||
There is only one sangati in this handbook in the place: yevva as
gmpm pddp |
yev . . . va |
In the available books, the gap between the words ‘Marivçre’ and ‘re’ is filled with sañgatis as in
the following.
There are three sañgatis found in the books SSAU (Ramanathan, S.P., p.46) and SSKN
(Parthasarathy, N.C., 1970, p.109) while there are four in the book KMM (Ayyangar Rangaramanuja,
1947, p.26).
The second sangati found in the book SSKN is as follows:
n p P , | pn Srs ndP pm || mG, M mgmp mpnp ||
mari ve | ………………re || ga ti ye … .va …….. ||
The second sangati as found in the book SSAU is as follows:
D O | p n s R s r s n d D n p
mari ve | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . re . .
In the book KMM it is found as the third sangati as follows: (Ayyangar, R.R., 1948, p.27).
MNP, pn Srs ndP || Pdn Dnp mPn nPm ||
Mari ve . . . . . . .|| . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||
The fourth sangati as found in KMM and the third sangati as found in SSKN are identical but the
third sangati found in the book SSAU has some slight variations.
MNP, | pnsR, nP P ; | pnsr nsrs n P | P ; ||
Mari |ve….. marive | ………… ma ri |ve ||
nsrsndP || ndPpm || nsRgrnsrs
……… || re …. || ………….
Pdn Dnp | mPn nPm ||
…………|…… …….||
We find six sañgatis in the book SSC of Vidya Shankar. Some more slight differences are made in
between and the final sangati also differs in svarâs. They are as follows:
(Vidya Shankar, 1989, p.300)
DO Pdn Dnp | ; , pnP pm | g G mgmp Mpd | pm g r Ggm
DO ve . . . . . | . . . . . . . re | gati ye . . . . va . .| . . .ram . ma
DO Psn dNp | MpNp DO . . . . . .
DO ve . . . . . .| . . . . . .DO . . . . . .
DO P,n Srs ndP | DO
DO ve . . . . . . . . | DO
DO pn srgr nsrs ndp |
Do ve . . . . . . . . . . . .|
Change occurs with the placement of words in tâïa âvarta
along with slight changes in the melodic movement
There are some krtis with structural differences in the melodic structure as the words are changed
in the tâïa âvarta. ‘Karuòajûdavamma ‘– Varâïi, Kâmâkªi – Varâïi are the songs.
Kâmâkªi - Varâïi Râgâ
In the kriti‘Kâmâkªi’, the pallavi has only two âvartas as found in KMM. But it has been extended
to four âvartas extending the karvai between the words ‘Kâmâ……kªi’ for one âvarta in the book SSC.
In the second version the first sangati is extended to three âvartas with the words ‘Kâmâkª i
amba’. In the second and third sañgatis, the word bangaru is added within the three âvartas while the
fourth and fifth sañgatis are extended to four âvartas with the words nannu Brôvave.
The kriti‘Kâmâkª i’ in Varâïi râgâ has different facets when we analyse the renderings of different
singers also. A mixture of the versions of the available notations is found from the version sung by Smt. S
Sowmya (auido S.V.T. 16.4.91). It has a simple structure with jaru prayogas according to the school of
Úri.D.K.Jayaraman (audio Jayraman, D.K., 15.5.97). The pallavi has only four âvartas in total. The
words Kâmâkªi is sung in one âvarta as:
g M g r r s
Ka ma ksi
In the version taught by Úri. T.M.Tyâgarâjan in the programme titled Isaiselvam, conducted by the
All India Râdio, Chennai the basic version is based on the notation published by Smt. Vidya Sankar but
many madhyamakâla sañgatis like:
nsr ns dn pd pm Grrs are added in the pallavi.
Ka . . . ma . . . . . + .ksi
According to different pathantaras there are some krtis in which the râgâs themselves are changed.
In this change closely allied râgâs are involved.
Name Râgâ Râgâ
Nilâyatâkºi Paraz Mayamalavagaula
Nannubrôvu Lalita Vasañta
Ninnuvina Âbhçri Ritigaula
Pârvatininnu Kalkada (janya under 13th mela) Kalkada (janya under 16th mela)
Taruòamidamma Gouïipañtu (Suddhamadhyama) Gouïipañtu (Sharpened
Karuòajûdavamma Varâïi PantuVarâïi
Úri Kamalâmbike DçúiyaTôdi (Janya under 8th mela) DçúiyaTôdi (janya under 45th mela)
The kriti which is sung with different svarâs but in the same râgâ is ‘Pârvatininnu’ in Kalkada râgâ
(Úyâmâ Sâstri II, p.44). This râgâ is mentioned in almost all the books as the janya of the 13th melakartha
Gayakapriya with the arohana avarohana ‘srgpds – sndpgrs’ taking the svarâs Suddha-risabha,
Antarâgândhara, Suddhadhaivaþa and Suddhaniªada. In the book ‘Râgâpravâham’ (Dandapani, M.N.
and Pattammal, D., 1985, p.76) this râgâ is listed as the janya of 13th mela with the vivâdi svarâs. Sundaram
Ayyar has given the arohana avarohana as ‘srgdpns – sndpgrs’ (Ayyar Sundaram, 1988, p.17). Vidya
Shankar (Vidya Shankar, 1989, p.p.225-227) has mentioned the arohana avarohana as ‘srgpds –
sNdpdndpgrs’ and T.K.Govinda Rao has published the arohana avarohana as ‘srgpds – sndpgrs’ (Govinda
Rao, T.K, 1998, p.34) but as a janya of the 16th melakartha, Cakravakam taking catuhsruti dhaivaþa and
kaisiki nisada. He has also mentioned that there is also another version of the râgâ which is the janya of the
13th melakartha.‘Pârvati Ninnu’ is sung in Kalkada as a janya of 13th mela by OEri D K Jayaraman (audio
SVT 21.4.87) S.Rajam (audio 22.5.86) and it is sung as the janya of 16th mela by OEri Rajkumar Bharathy
(audio SVT 9.10.94).
Úri Kamalâmbike – DçúiyaTôdi
The kriti‘Úri Kamalâmbike’ in Dçúiya Tôdi of Subbarâya Sâstri, has another version regarding
svarâs taken by the râgâ. The râgâ Dçúiya Tôdi is sung as the janya of the 45th melakarta by Úri S. Rajam,
a leâding performing artist with prati madhyama and he has told that it is the version sung by Úri Muthiah
BhagavAþar (P.I. dated 22.5.96).
Changes of tâïas found in some krtis
There are some songs in which the tâïa is different
Song Râgâ Tâïa Tâïa
Partvatininnu Kalkada Rûpakam Tisrâgâti – âdi
Karuòanidhi Tôdi Rûpakam Tisrâgâti – âdi
Sañkari Saveri Rûpakam Tisrâgâti – âdi
The total number of akºarakâlas of the two tâïas is same and it does not make much difference in
the structure.
There is another group of songs which is found in misra câpu tâïa with seven akºaras for an âvarta
either in the regular or reverse order as 3 + 4 or 4 + 3 in some books and also in âdi tâïa one (oru) Kaïai
which has eight akºaras for an âvarta, in other books.
They are:
Name of the krti Râgâ In Misra Câpu tâïa in oru Kaïai Âdi
Himâcala Anandha- S.S.II (p.43) V.S. (p.342),
bhairavi S.Rajam (Oral) RRI (p.30)
C.K.Reetha (Oral)
Karuòa judu OEri S.S.II(p.52), RRI (p.110)
V.S.,(p.98) D.K.J. (Oral)
NCDP (p.118)
Trilôkamatha Paraz S.S.II(p.16), RRI (p.96)
TSP (p.19)
T.R.S. (Oral)
Taruòam Gaulipantu V.S. (p.24) T.S.P. (p.18)
NCDP (p.57), RRI (p.66),
SR (p.39) S.Rajam & D.K.J. (Oral)
Himâcala –Ânandhabhairavi in the version of Úyâmâ Sâstri II is in câputâïa in vilomakrama. There
are plenty of pauses in between to adjust the words. The three words Hima, Kuma, Uma and Sama are
sung to four svarâs i.e. ‘takâdimi’ count of câpu tâïa. The pallavi is sung for eight âvartas as
Himaca | laþanayabro | o ……. | cutaki |
timanci samayamu | ra …… | ve am ba ||.
In each âvarta the number of words varies from one, two three and four in the second âvarta alone
we find six letters.
In the book of N.C.Parthasrathy this song is published in oru Kaïai âdi. We find pauses in between
the words in this version also.The second âvarta of the pallavi starts with the words ‘Kitimanci’ which does
not confine to the rule of muhana.
I line ‘Himâcala’. II line ‘kiti manci’.
In the version sung by S.Rajam (audio Rajam, S., PI 28.5.96) this songs starts on atita eduppu in
viloma câpu tâïa. The word ‘hi’ is sung after six akºaras of the âvarta and the word ‘ma’ comes as the first
letter in the next âvarta. While repeating the line the syllables sung in the last âvarta are eight as follows:
(Râve amba-hi). Similarly in the anupallavi also while repeating the first word ‘ku’ we find eight letters as
‘lomanavati-ku’. In the development of sañgatis the dirgha letter ‘lo’ is sung to hrasva svara as
‘s snrs n d p P’
lo ma ..navati ku
In the third âvarta of the Caraòa also we find eight letters that are adjusted by singing in
s P P S, S, n d | P,
mavinuma..kanu ma
Here also the dirgha letter ‘ma’ is sung to hrasva svara.
In the oral version collected from Smt.C.K.Ritha (Audio, Ritha, C.K.-1, 23.3.95) the dirga hrasva
svars are aptly sung to the same svarâs. Perhaps lesser number of words as fourteen and thirteen in some
avAþas as against sixteen for oru Kaïai âdi tâïa may have suggested this kriti to be rendered in câpu tâïa.
The song ‘Trilôkamatha’ in Paraz râgâ as found in HW in misra çka tâïa which has seven akºaras
for an âvarta we find the distribution of Sâhitya syllables as four, six, three and so on. Yet in the fifth and
sixth âvarta, we find only two syllables for the seven counts of the tâïa (vi and ksana). Similarly in the last
âvarta of the anupallavi and the last two âvartas of the Caraòa we find five sâhitya syllables while in the
second âvarta of the second line of the Caraòa there are six syllables.
d d m g r sn – Anupallavi m n d m – g m g r n – Caraòa(p.257)
na Kâmâksi ginnudaiti dantyujesi
p d p d
ganâdikku – II âvarta of the second line of the first Caraòa.
So the tempo is fast in the above âvartas.
In viloma câpu tâïa as in the book SSKN (Parthasarathy, N.C.,1970, pp.63-66),this song is
found with the same arrangements of words as in HW but with the tâïa akºaras of 4+3.In oral trâdition
T.R.Subramaniyan (audio SVT 26.4.87)has sung in viloma câpu. Mrs.Ambujam Vedandam has sung this
in âdi tâïa.
In the other songs of Úyâmâ Sâstri in câputâïa also we find less number of words but the Kâlapramana
of the song is uniform throughout. The sâhitya syllables are according to the duration of the svarâs though
karvai is found in between the words. The uneven distribution of words and the mixed kâlapramana is seen
in the songs ‘Himâcala’, ‘Karuòa judu’ and ‘Taruòamidamma’ in câpu tala suggests oru Kaïai âdi tâïa
for these songs and in the song ‘Trilôkamatha’ this is in reverse order so câpu tâïa for this song alone.
Changesfound in the ciþþasvarâs
In the songs that appear in the publications in the post 1930period thereare somesongs that pose
problems regarding the authenticity of the ciþþasvarâs. The following chart shows the sources from where
they have beentaken.
Name ofthe song Râgâ Ciþþasvara Source
Dçviminanetri Sañkarâbharaòa With CS KMM,SSK,SKM,
CSS,SuS,and AS
Without CS Other sources
Dçvinipadasarasa Kambhoji Version1 KMM
Version2 Smt.Saroja & Lalitha
Without CS Other sources
Parâkçla Kedarâgâula Version1 Personallylearntfrom
Version 2 CSS,SuS and AS
Note : From the above table we notice two kinds of situations regarding ciþþasvara.
1. In the kritiDçviminanetri there is ciþþasvara in the kritifrom one source but not in the one from
the other sources.
2. The krtis Dçvinipada and Parâkçla have two versions of ciþþasvarâs, one in the book and the
other in oral trâdition. In the rest of the sources no ciþþasvara is found.
In the krtis with ciþþasvara as seen in the sources prior to 1930,We noticed that the grahasvara of
the ciþþasvara and the pallavi happens to be same in the two krits Pâliñcu and PahiOEri They are also found
with more hrasva svarâs, while the ciþþasvaraof the first kritiis in the same tempo of the krti, the ciþþasvara
of the second kritiis in madhyamakâla.
Dçvinipadasarasa- Kambhoji.
The kriti Dçvinipadasarasa has two versions, solkattuciþþasvara and a ciþþasvara with dirgasvarâs
and hrasvasvarâs employing long karvais.
Version 1:
P, mg pdn pdmp gmrg | S, gr gmp |n dn p dmpd ||
Tam takatâdimi pdmp taritaka|jan gr januta|udanitAþamapd||
s r g m rg sr S, \ p d s P \ | , s r g S , / s | N d P m g m|| p d +
dimikita takajam takitajam| takitajam s| Ndtimtâdingi|| natom+[Dçvi]
Version 2:
G;; m g g rr rsnpD| S;; rp | mgrmgrsr[m] g ||
mgrgS pmgrg Sndp|mgpdS,s|dp, mg srg ||
None of thecompositions of Úyâmâ Sâstri is found with solkattu. Moreover solkattu ciþþasvarâs
are more suited to the compositions figuring in the sphere of dance. This composition being a kritinot meant
for dance the solkattu does not fit in. Yet the graha svara of the first ciþþasvara coincides with the pallavi .In
both the versions patterns of svarâs are found. Svarâs with long karvai is found in the second version and
the grahasvara is different here. The flow of the svara pulse as felt in the krtis belonging to the early period
is reduced to certain extent due to the profution of karvai and dirgaa svarâs in both the versions.
This song has been learnt by the present writer from S.V.Parthasarathy.This ciþþasvara is seen in
the rendering by N.Vijayasiva.There is also another ciþþasvara found in the book of T.K.GovindaRao.
The first one is as follows:
R;; rmgr sndpmg |R ; ; mr | pmnpsnrs ||
Ndpmgr_pmgrs_ ndpns | rmpndpmg |rmpmP; ||
MgrPmgr ndp Sndp | nsrSndp | mpnnS; ||
pns nsr srmgr pmgrs | nsrS ndp|, mgr mpns ||
The second one is as follows:
srs, ndpdPmgrgR| snsr S nd | pnsrmpns ||
Rpmgr RmgrsRsn | dpPmgrs | rmpnsrmg ||
In the oral version it is a madhyamakâla ciþþasvara as seen in the earlier krtis prior to 1930.We find
karvai for six akºaras in the beginning aswell as in the padagarbham for the same svara ri but in tarasthâyi
and madhyasthâyi respectively and in the rest of the places the svara mostly proceed as hrasvasvarâs.
Patterns of svarâs are interspersed with the maximum of hrasva svarâs in the constructions without disturbing
the flow of the svarâs.
nsr -Snd -Pmgr -mpns
In the book of T.K.GovindaRao, the ciþþasvara is in a different form. Though it is also in
madhyamakâla similar grouping of svarâs are found continuously in the first and second âvarta. The last
quarter of the two âvartas proceeds with svarâs in sarvalaghu pattern in the ascending order and the
ciþþasvara is finished with tarasthâyi svarâs srmg and the pallavi is taken up as {srmg} rsThe grahasvara
differs in this version.
In some songs problems regarding svarâsâhitya are met with. In some of the early publications
svara sâhitya is completely absent or only svarâs are present .In some songs svara sâhitya is added in
the later books. There are some songs with different versions [with respect to svara] also. The following
chart shows the differences.
Song Râgâ Svarâsâhitya Source
Ô Jagadamba Ânandhabhairavi Without SS or CS GS
With SS SSPS and all the
publications and HW
PahiOEri Ânandhabhairavi WithCS GS, Oral version by C.K. Ritha
With SS HW all publications
Pâliñcu Madhyamâvathi With CS SSSS
With SS HW and all publications
Marivçre Anandabharavi Version1 SSSS
Version 2 HW
Version 3 SSC
Version 4 SSAU
Kâmâkª i Varâïi Version 1 KMM
Version 2 SSC
In the above table we notice four kinds of situations regarding svara sâhitya.
1. There are four versions for the kritiMarivçre with minor changes in karvai of svarâs.
2. The kriti Ô Jagadamba is found without svara sâhitya in one source but with svara sâhitya in
the others.
3. The two krtis PahiOEri and Pâliñcu are found only with ciþþasvara in one source and with svara
sâhitya in the other sources .The first type is seen in oral trâdion also.
4. The kritiKâmâkªi has two different versions of svarâsâhitya.
There are differences found in the arrangements of karvai among the four versions in the first two
lines of the svara sâhitya nportion and not in svarâs, the next two lines are identical in all the versions.
Version 1[SSSS, p.205]
Pdpmgmgp | mgmgrG | mpgmdpm | grsgmpm |
gmGrgr | nsngrnn | ssggmmp | mggMps |
ndpndpm |dpdmpgr | pmgrsnsg | rgmPdp |
snsgrmg |grnsnrs | ,nddPm | gRGM |
Version 2
Pdpmgp | m-gmgrG | mpgmdpm | grsgmpm |
gMgrgr | nsngrnn | ssggmmp | mggM; |
In Vidya Sankar’s version change comes in the third avartha as [SSC, p.302]
mP,gmd | pmgr sgm | pmgmGr ||
In the version as available in the book [SSAU, p47] it is as follows in the rest of the books
mentioned above:
P; dpm | g pmgmgr | Gmpgmd | pmgr sgm ||
pmgMgr | grnsngr | nnssggm | mpm ggM ||
Karvai for two aksaras is added in the beginning after the svara pa so the karvai found after ma in
the last âvarta of the second line is omitted,excepting for this the svarâsâhitya is identical with the others
Ô Jagadamba - Anandabairavi
The song Ô Jagadamba is found with neither ciþþasvara nor svarâsahita in the book GS [p.154] but
this kritiis found with svarâsâhitya in SSPS [p.320] and allthe other publications of the later periods including
HW of SamaSastri II.As seen in the notation of SSPS the svara and sahita letters snchronise well as hrasva
and dirha letters are used uniformely in both svara and sâhitya. P.Sambamurthy has mentioned in his book
that one of SyamaSastri’s sisya by name Sangitasvami had composed a suitable sâhitya for the ciþþasvara
composed by SyamaSastri. [Sambamurthy, P, 1962, p.91]
Differences found in the svarâsâhityas of Subbarâya Sâstri
Among the published books we can find slight changes also regarding the svarâsâhityas of the
kritiJanani in Ritigaula râgâ and Vanajâsana in Úri râgâ. In the kritiin Ritigaula râgâ the thirteenth and
fourteenth âvartas are changed in KMM.
[GP, p.118]
g g m g r G | g r n S n n | S n d m |
sarasirugalo | canisuvasini | tamasamu |
Sarasirugalo| canisuvasini|ta… masamu|
In the kritivanajâsana in Úri râgâ there are two versions of svarâsahiyta .In the first as in HW
wefind eight âvartas . While in the second version as n KMM there are only six âvartas.The svarâs are
changed completely excepting the finishing svarâs by omitting the karvais, the âvartas are reduced in the
second one.
Version 1 H .W.-5-8 âvartas
rGgrs –rmpnpm | nNs nsrs – snp |
n n S;;;; | ;Psnpmrgrs |
Apart from the krtis, there are changes in the Tôdi svarajati and Bçgada varòâ of SyamaSastri.
There are some minor changes in the svarajati in Yadukulakâmbhôji and the varòâ in Ânandhabhairavi.
Differences found in the Svarajati in Tôdi
Between the book of Vidya Shankar and other books differcences are found in the svarajati Râve
in Tôdi râgâ .The starting note of all the Caraòas are same in all the sources .Inthe fifth and sixth Caraòas
excepting the beginning they are entirely changed .
The following chart will show the changed portions.
All the sources Vidya Shankar’s version
!Caraòa in the place g m g r s R r s n d D, S n R s
m g r s n R d n s r vinivanucunammitinisada brôva
G, Rs
da brôva
||Caraòa s n D n s, |,g r d g r s n||
s n s r S; | d n s r g r n danivedatircaveduramuganu
||dinivedatir caveduramuganu
|||Caraòa G m P md N, ndg g r
G m P, g m D, n d m g m Kamapalinini vegatiyani
Kamapalinini vegatiyani
IV Caraòa ,
m g r S, |r g s R r n s , d m g , R , m | g r N, g r s
tibirudu |mahiloni ketaku tibiruduni ma | hiloniketaku
The fifth Caraòa as seen in other sources is as follows:
g m n d m g m d m g d M g r n|
Kamalamukhi darâgâla ghana lila kaca
d G s r n S | g r n d g r G ||
Paramrgavilo | canamani radana ||
mg r n D, g m p_g m g D n |
Gajagamanamahilon inusadaþa |
d g r n D, p | , m G R s ||
lacukoninidhya | na me talli ||
Vidya Shankar’s Version
g m n d m g m d m g d M m r s |
Kamalamukhi darâgâlaganalilakaca |
p M r g m G, | m g r n s r G ||
paramru gavilo|canamaniradana ||
g r g m D m d N d n s D d ||
gajagamanamâdiloninu sadaþa ||
n d g r N, d | M, G R n ||
l acukonini dya | nametalli ||
The sixth Caraòa is also changed in the same way.
On seeing the changes it seems they are brought out in order to bring out the svarakºara coincidence.
So the svarâs are chaned according to sâhitya syllables.
There are three versions for the varòâ in Bçgada râgâ as found in the three publications SKM,
SSC, and SSKN of Sundaram Ayyar, Vidya Shankar and N.C.Parthasarathy respectively. There are
changes in the pallavi, anupallavai and ettugada svara between the first and second book, while the third
book combines both the versions. The entire muktayi svara also vary in the first and second while the third
follows the second version.
Multiple versions of the compositions are found only in the compositions of SyamaSastri.Some
of the compositions have existed from the first period and undergone changes in their melodic structures by
the addition of sañgatis, introduction of a sâhitya for existing ciþþasvarâs thus converting it in to svarâsâhitya,
some of the songs underwent change in tâïas in which the were originally set.
Compositions also underwent changes in sâhitya setting through repetition of words, mixing up of
Caraòas and through occurrence of variation in words. Changes in râgâs and râgâlaksanas are found in the
krtis of the second period. The two râgâs attributed to same kritihappen tobe closely allied râgâs. The
change would have occurred only due to the handling the râgâs.
Only minor changes occur in the songs of SubbarayaSastri while no changes are found in the krits
of Aòòâsvâmi sâstri. The varòâ in Bçgada with an additional âvartas of music after the Caraòa followed by
the muktayisvara sâhitya resembles the anubandha section found in the varòâ in Ânandhabhairavi râgâ.
The melodic structure of the varòâ in Bçgada râgâ given in SKM seems to refiect the real style of Úyâmâ
The compositions published in some select books and the omission of some compositions in a few
that belong to the second period 1930-1970 are taken up for discussion along with the compositions
published after 1970.Two kritis of Subbarâya Sâstri are also taken up for the discussion against there
authorship .A varòâ found in some books and a new kriti found in the book of T.K.Govinda Rao of
Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri are taken up for discussion.
The list of kritis published and omitted in the publications is as follows:
Song Râgâ Published in Not published
Pâlimpavamma Mukhâri KMM (p.69), SSKN of NCDP
SSC (pp.229-231)
SSK (p.30) (as the
kriti of S.S.)
Tanjore as a seat
of Music – S.Seetha as
a kriti of T.P. (p.216)
NannuKaruòiñci Sañkarâbharaòa KMM (p.52) SSC III All other sources
GK (p.75) as Gharbhapuri
Brôvasamaya Punnâgavarâli KMM (p.42) SSKN
SSC (pp.289-290),
SSK (p.16)
Sarievvaramma Bhairavi KMM (p.67), SSKN
SSC (pp.324-326),
SSK (p.34)
Parâkçla Kçdâragaula KMM (p.59) S.S.K. of NCDP
SSC III (p.SSK (p.34) S.S.C. IV
In the above table, three types of situations are noticed.
1. The song ‘Pâlimpavamma’ has been published in three books as the composition of S.S. but
in one book as that of T.P. It is also omitted in the book SSKN.
2. The song ‘NannuKaruòiñci’ is found only in KMM and the early publication of Vidya Sankar
(1948) as Úyâmâ Sâstri and as the kriti of ‘Gharbhapuri’ composers in the book GK.
3. The remaining three songs are found in the three books but omitted in the book S.S.K. The
third song is found in the early publication of Vidya Sankar but omitted in the later publication
of the same author (1989).
All the five songs are being found in the H.W. of Úyâmâ Sâstri II is also a point to be noted out
‘NannuKaruòiñci’ in Sañkarâbharaòa râgâ as found in the two books mentioned earlier has no
mudra Caraòa. There are some new words found as ‘Varijasuda’, ‘Gambhira’, ‘dhanujanuta’, ‘duskarma
vidhu vidarini’, which are not found in other compositions of Úyâmâ Sâstri. Moreover this has been listed
as one of the compositions of Garbhapuri compositions in the book of T.Visvanthan (Visvanathan, T.,
1968, p.75).
Brôvasamaya - Punnâgavarâli
This song is seen in the group of songs prior to 1930 (Appendix I, Chart I), notation is available
only in these books. In KMM, the kriti ‘Brôvasamaya’ in Punnâgavarâli râgâ starts after (3/4 matra) three
akºaras in two-Kaïai âdi tâïa but it is in sama eduppu in the books of V.S. (1947) and the svarâ structure
is also different in the opening phrase as follows :-
G r S m g g r g m P d n | dpmp . .
G ; ; gMg gR, s r g r g m P ; ; g g | P , pmg rsn
Bro . . . . . va . sa . ma . yami te de . | vi . . . . . . . .[V.S.]
Two Kaïai âdi in slow tempo is maintained throughout the composition in KMM, while the Caraòa
is rendered in medium tempo by the increase of words in SSC.
The new songs published in the latest book of Vidya Shankar, 1989 include a variety of compositions
as gitâs, varòâs and kritis. Some compositions structured with sections, without pallavi, anupallavi and
Caraòa are listed as gitâs in this book by V S.
Kâmâkªi Karuòa Katâkºi - Paraz - Tisra triputa (p.108)
Sañtatam - Paraz - Âdi (pp.322-323)
Pârvati Janani - Bhairavi - Khanda matya (p.228)
Sârasâkºi Pahimam - OEavçri - Tisra triputa (p.327)
Kâmâkªi Lokasaksi - Madhyamâvathi - Tisra triputa (p.119)
The five gitâs have sections or kandikas that are of same length and sung to same music.
Atita eduppu in all the five sections of the gita Sañtatam we find atita eduppu.
e.g. Vandippen ————— anudinam
barama —————— kadaikkan
Madhyamakâla phrases
Apart from the above illustration of the gita Kâmâkªi Lokasaksi in Madhyamâvathi râgâ and in the
gita Sârasâkºi in OEavçri râgâ also all the three sections ends with a madhyamakâla phrase, which is unusual
in gitâs. Normally in the gitâs the tempos are not varied. In the first section the third line proceeds as
d S r r g r Rs | rgR |S ||
Para sakti ba lesu | si— | le ||
In the second section as
g R s s D R s | r g R| S ||
Kati dr ta kance - | sali | le ||
In the third section as
D sS rs R s| r g R |S ||
Sama ganalo lesu so|be|| .
According to Úyâmâ Sâstri’s descendent S. Rajah, gitâs are not found in the collection of songs
possessed by the family, excepting the one in Tamil (Sañtatam) in Paraz râgâ which is listed as a kriti. But
Vidya Shankar has mentioned that only her guru S.S. II had taught her these as gitâs as the gitâs of S.S.
[P.I. dated 10-11-1994]. Moreover she has mentioned in her book ‘Úyâmâ Sâstri’ that these are composed
for performing pujas. However as stated above among the five songs discussed here only Sañtatam figures
in the collection of Úyâmâ Sâstri, that too only as a kriti. The tempo of the gitâs as analyzed here is slower
than the other gitâs sung as samanya gitâs [Kerayaniranu, Kundagoura] i.e. there are two svarâs for a beat
instead of one svarâ. The only resemblance is the sections or khandikas between these two. But
madhyamakâla phrases found in the gita ‘Sârasâkºi’ in Úavçri and ‘Kâmâkª i’ in Madhyamâvathi is a
unique factor. Only simple svarâ structure is found in the normal gitâs, we find jâru prayogas, Dhâtu svarâ
prayogas in the above-mentioned gitâs. The sâhitya used here is doxology excepting the Tamil composition
Sañtatam. There are possibilities of considering these compositions as kirtanas rather than gitâs.
The kritis, which are found only in the third edition published by Vidya Shankar in 1978, are from
the serial numbers 53 to 72 – Appendix I and all the kritis are found in the book of T. K. Govinda Rao also.
Among the kritis published in these books there are two kritis in the râgâ Ânandhabhairavi, four
compositions in the râgâ Kalyâòi and two in Gouïipañtu. There are compositions in the râgâs Nâþa, Nîlâmbari,
Ârabhi and Jagañmôhini, which are the râgâs, not found in the other publications and additional compositions
in the already published râgâs such as Kedarâgâula, Pûrvikalyâòi and Madhyamâvathi. Among these kritis
some structural changes and the use of new tâïas are also found apart from the new râgâs and tâïas. In
some kritis some portions of the Caraòa are sung in madhyamakâla e.g. last line of the Caraòa in the kriti
‘Brihannayaki’, the same words are repeated twice to different music in the last âvarta. Of course there
are some songs in which the whole Caraòa is sung with profusion of words, which are also seen in the early
There are two kritis in the râgâ Ânandhabhairavi that have different in melodic movement of the
râgâ from the other compositions already analyzed. They are Mahilô-âdi (p.304-305) and ‘Âdinamunci’
- triputa (p.81-82). In this râgâ. Frequent use of Jâru prayogas in an âvarta such as: mp\S/S | nS\S/S |
gm\S and rare prayogas like pnp, mnp are found in the kriti Âdinamunci. The text of the kriti Mahilô is
found in one of the notebooks of the descendents but not the notation. This kriti has three Caraòas which
are sung in different dhâtus. The graha svarâ is M P M ;;
Ma hi lô
Which is a rare thing to be found in the kritis in this râgâ as said by Calcutta S.Krishnamoorthy (PI
dated 15.5.1997).
Prayogas as ‘rgrs’, ‘gmms’ and ‘janta’ svarâ prayogas as ‘pss’, ‘sspm’ are also used in this kriti.
Stressing the svarâs repeatedly is also found as ‘ssssnnsss’, ‘mggmm’ and so on. These features are not
found in the rest of the kritis prior to 1970 in this râgâ.
There are some more new kritis found in this book are as follows:
Brôvavamma – Nîlâmbari – Triputa (pp.296-297).
Pahimam – Nâþa – Rûpakam (pp.237-238).
Palayasumam – Ârabhi – Triputa (pp.236).
Ninne nammiti – Kedarâgâula - Âdi (pp.211-212).
Dayajuda – Jagañmôhini – Misracâpu (pp.133-134).
Brihannayaki – Madhyamâvathi – Tisramatya (pp.244-243).
Kâmâkª i – Bçgada – Âdi (pp.109-113).
Brôvavamma is a kriti in the râgâ Nîlâmbari and Âdi tâïa. This kriti is found with the characteristic
jâru gamakas of the râgâ. The use of words in profusion with fewer gaps in between and the slow delineation
of the râgâ bring the râgâ bhava. Music of the anupallavi is repeated in the last quarter of the Caraòa also.
The last âvarthas of the anupallavi and Caraòa are left out with pause with only one word. In structure as
well as sâhitya, this kritis has similarity with the old kritis but we find only one Caraòa and the râgâ is also
not found in the earlier kritis
‘Pâhimam’ in Nâþa râgâ and ‘Pâlayasumam’ in Ârabhi râgâ are two kritis in Sanskrit. While
Ârabhi râgâ kriti is a simple one with two Caraòas sung to the same music, the Nâþa kriti is different with
the Caraòas sung in different dhâtus as madhyamakâla sâhityas.
‘Ninne nammiti’ is a kriti in Kedarâgâula râgâ that resembles the kriti Parâkçla in svarâ structure
but is without mudra. Dayajuda in Jagañmôhini râgâ is found with notation in the book of V.S. but the text
of the composition is found in one of the notebooks of S.S. II in which it is grouped as one composed in
praise of Goddess Brihadamba of Pudukottai.
‘Brihannayaki’ in Madhyamâvathi râgâ is a simple kriti resembling the gita ‘Kâmâkª i’ in the
same râgâ mentioned earlier. In the last âvarta of the Caraòa we find madhyamakâla sâhitya in which same
words are repeated twice to different svarâs. Kâmâkªi in Bçgada râgâ is a kriti set in madhyamakâla.
‘Nivegatiyani’ is a varòâ in Kalyâòi râgâ, Tisramatya tâïa (pp.220-222). This varòâ starts with a
combination of svarâs as N, D pmpdnd in the pallavi in avarohana krama, and this pattern is found in the
two avartas as S, R, sns dns and P , D , mdmgrs. The second line of the pallavi itself goes up to tarasthâyi.
Dhâtusvarâ prayogas are found – dgrnrn dnd (mukthayi svarâ), dgrn – rndmg (III Caraòa svarâ). After the
last svarâ the Caraòa is sung for two avartas and in the second âvarta we find the mudra of Úyâmâ Sâstri.
It is followed by the mukthayi svarâ sâhitya and finally the varòâ is concluded with the pallavi.
The varòâ ‘Namanavini’ in Sourâºþra râgâ and Catusra aþa tâïa has the same structure as the
varòâ in Kalyâòi râgâ with a sâhitya for ettugadasvarâ and a second âvarta for the Caraòa with the mudra
‘Úyâmâkriª òa nuta’, which is sung after the last Caraòa svarâ. The unusual prayoga ‘smgm’ occurs in
many places in this varòâ, ‘smgmpmD’ occurs in the ettugadasvarâ and in the fourth Caraòa svarâ. Moreover
‘sMgrrs’, ‘SMgrsn’, ‘S;;mgpm’ also occur here and there along with the ‘srgm’ prayoga.
An analysis of the two varòâs reveals are fact that in the varòâ in Bçgada râgâ Vaggeyakara mudra
is seen in the pallavi and in these two varòâs it is found in the second line of the Caraòa which is sung only
after the last eddugada svarâ as an ‘anubandha’. In music structure also these two varòâs have târa sthâyi
svarâs in the second line of the pallavi. Though this is found in the Bçgada varòâ also in V.S. 1978 in the
other books it is different. This varòâ (Sourâºþra) also uses some janta and Dhâtu prayogas and jati
patterns as found in the other two varòâs in Bçgada and Ânandhabhairavi analyzed earlier, yet the use of
Tisramatya and catusra aþa tâïas are rare features. Though we find a varòâ in Nâyaki râgâ in catusra aþa tâïa
use of Tisramatya is rare in a varòâ and excepting the gitâs and the kriti Brihannayaki analyzed earlier in this
chapter no other composition is found in Tisramatya tâïa.
Tamil Compositions of Úyâmâ Sâstri
Taruòam Idamma in Gouïipañtu râgâ came into vogue in the second period and is found in many
publications for this period but not in H.W. The two versions of using sharpened madhyama and suddha
madhyama and in câpu tâïa and âdi tâïa have been dealt earlier. This kriti has been carried over by almost
all publications from 1947. Though this is not found in the H W of S S II, S Rajah says that Úyâmâ Sâstri
had composed ten to fifteen compositions in Tamil but only a few are available now (P.I. dated 22.5.2000).
We find the compositions Ennçramum in Punnâgavarâli râgâ and Sañtatam ennai in Paraz râgâ [text only]
in the collections of the descendents. There are two more Tamil kritis found in this book H.W.II. As the
notations are only available in the book of V.S. 1978 the analysis is based on this book. They are as
1. Ennçramum - Punnâgavarâli
2. Ennçramum - Pûrvikalyâòi
3. Sañtatam - Paraz
4. Parâmukha - Kalyâòi
5. Taruòam - Gouïipañtu
Sañtatam in Paraz has been grouped as a gita and analysis has been done under gitâs.
We find that the style of the text is different from that of the other compositions. They are just
doxologies and not in usual spoken language. The structure of some songs are also different with the
Caraòas sung in different svarâ structure repeating the words the different svarâs, and singing some portions
in the madhyamakâla which are not found in the compositions. Though the Caraòas resemble the svarâjatis,
the tempo is same in one kriti and it is sung in madyama kala in the other kriti.. We find some kritis of
Tyâgarâja (Endukunirdaya – Harikâmbhôji and Muttusvâmi Dikªitar (Mâyetvamyahi – Sudhatarangini)
with this structure. Likewise the authorship of some compositions in the râgâ Ânandhabhairavi and Kalyâòi
are to be studied. We find a definite difference in the melodic movement of the râgâ and sâhitya of these
compositions from the others like the jaru prayogas and frequent use of same svarâs and the number of
words are more in a âvarta in some compositions. In some of these compositions tâïas like tisra matya,
chatusra jati aþa, Khanda matya are used which is also a rare feature, but all the above-mentioned
controversial compositions bear the mudra of the composer.
Among the compositions of Subbarâya Sâstri, there are two songs with doubtful authorship Úri
Kâmâkªi Vasañta and Inkevarrru in Sahâna.
Úri Kâmâkªi in Vasañta râgâ has been published as the kriti of Subbarâya Sâstri in the book
Ranga Ramanuja Ayyangar and T.K.Govinda Rao, but this kriti has been learnt by the present writer as the
kriti of Tiruvarur Ramasvamy Pillai. Vidvan T.M.Tyagarajan in a demonstration of the songs of Tiruvarur
Ramasvamy Pillai sang the songs Jagadesvari [Môhanam], Ekkalattlum [Pûrvikalyâòi], Úri Kâmâkª i
[Vasañta] and explained how the composer had fitted in beautiful svarâ sâhitya in them [JMA, 1982,
p.37]. Though this song has the mudra Kumara of Subbarâya Sâstri, there is an occurrence of the mudra
Vedapuri of Tiruvarur Ramasvamy Pillai also. There are also similarities between the svarâ sâhitya of the
kriti Jagadesvari-Môhanam with the kriti Úri Kâmâkªi –Vasañta. Both of them have svarâksara syllables
figuring at specific places .The syllable ma in the Vasañta kriti and da in the Môhana kriti thus with these
similarities this seems to be the kriti of Tiruvarur Ramasvamy Pillai than Subbarâya Sâstri.
The kriti in Sahâna râgâ is included among the compositions of Subbarâya Sâstri in the HW
notebook of the family. This kriti bears the mudra kumara in the second Caraòa as Vadanu Kumarudanu.
There is a note that this s the last kriti of Subbarâya Sâstri on Goddess Úri Kusumakuntâïambika of
Udayarpalayam where he lived his last days. Under this note there is a signature of the writer Úyâmâ Sâstri
|| with the date 17.8.35.
Dr. Rita Rajan has analyzed this kriti as a kriti of Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri [JMA.1983, pp.192 to197].
But the setting of this kriti with lot of sañgatis and a svarâ sâhitya reveals the style of Subbarâya Sâstri
rather than that of Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri.
In the sâhitya Subbarâya Sâstri refers to the Goddess as being worshipped by Brahma, Visnu, and
Devas in the words Pankaja bhava hari surapati pujita in the anupallavi .A similar reference is found n the kriti
Emaninne in Mukhâri râgâ: Harihara suramuni varulagu nidu Caraòa mahima poaduta tarama. He refers to the
place Udaarpalayam as Mugadapura in this song. This method of referring to the place is also found in the
compositions of Subbarâya Sâstri. For example, Tiruvarur is referred to as Úri Velayupura in the kriti Úri
Kamalâmbike and Kâñchipuram is referred to as Varakâñchipuralayavasini in the kriti Emaninne n Mukhâri.
The reference to the patron Kacci Kalyanaranga makes it appear though Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri had composed
the song in praise of his patron .His two varòâs in Úri râgâ and Kâmbhôji râgâ for instance are in praise of
kacci Kalyanaranga, in fact it is not the patron, but the Goddess who is celebrated as the protector of Kacci
Kalyanaranga in this song as Kacci Kalyanaranga sambini Brôvave in the second Caraòa.
With regard to the music set in this kriti there are ten sañgatis in the first line and two sañgatis in the
second line .In the first line sañgatis are developed from the middle to the end. Madhyamakâla sañgatis are
also found as:
r g m p | D Pdp Mpm | G Gmg R Rgr ||
In the eighth and ninth sañgatis we fimnd jaru prayogas as:
pmdns \ | RGMmmr Rgr || S+
na.nu bro………va….|| …+
S| NSRR ; / N; | nsdndp - dp | mpmg do ||
The sañgatis found in this song resemble the sañgatis of Subbarâya Sâstri than Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri.
The svarâ sâhitya in this kriti also bear the style of Subbarâya Sâstri with many dirgha svarâs. It proceeds
with dirgha svarâs as:
R ;rgmpD ndpm |
G ; ; R| ; rsnR |
S ; ; sr | N,DPm ||
Here we find combinations of svarâs in tisram as Ns, Rs,Ss,Pp, here and there and also in the last
line continuously as :
D n, Ss , P | pMm Gg rrs +
In the Caraòa we find apparent Madhyamakâla sâhitya also as in the other kritis of Subbarâya
The auxiliary elements found in the kritis of Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri are citta svarâs and madhyamakâla
sâhitya and not svarâ sâhitya as pointed out in the chapter two is to be noted here.
On account of these similarities, this kriti may be attributed to Subbarâya Sâstri, rather than to
Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri.
The varòâ ‘Ninnumincina’ in Tôdi râgâ is mentioned as the varòâ of Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri in the
books of P.Sambamurty and Dr. S.Seetha but this is not found in the HW of Úyâmâ Sâstri | | or in the
books of Vidya Shankar and T.K.Govinda Rao. Perhaps the word Ninnumincina found in the Caraòa of
the varòâ Karuòa Katâkºi in Tôdi râgâ found in all sources might have been mentioned as the name of the
varòâ itself in the two books. The kriti Úri Kâñchipuravasini in Kalyâòi râgâ is found in the book of
T.K.Govinda Rao. Though the sâhitya is in Sanskrit there are some new words like Shanmukha Janani are
found. The structure of the kriti resembles the other kritis with one Caraòa with real madhyamakâla sâhitya
which is the feature found in the kritis of Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri. There are five sañgatis in the pallavi though
there are some minor variations with more similarities this kriti seems to be Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri’s.
I had started my quarrys regarding the difficulty in learning the compositions of Syama Sastri in
the beginning of my research work. The disparities regarding the structure, raga and tala prevaling with the
compositions of Syama Sastri alone has been analysed and the reasons for these desparities are found out
as a result of this work.
The structure of the kriti format as found in the kritis of Úyâmâ Sâstri is normally with three Caraòas
of a proportion in length is found between the angas, sañgatis in small number, ciþþasvarâs and svarâs
sâhitya are included in the format of some kritis. The other kritis with one Caraòa, Caraòas with
madhyamakâla sâhityas and angas of shorter length though found with the mudra of the composer and
seen in the post 1970 period do not appear to be in the style of Úyâmâ Sâstri. Thee songs do not reflect the
same way in which the ragas are handled in the kritis of earlier periods. The additional features and sañgatis
too differ in style. The pauses employed in between the words in the câpu tâïa kritis suggest slow-medium
tempo for the compositions of Úyâmâ Sâstri. The difficulty in maintaining the pauses in these compositions
might have changed the tâïa of the compositions from câpu tâïa (7 akºaras) to oru Kaïai âdi (8 akºaras) as
evident in ‘Himâcalatanaya’ in Ânandhabhairavi.
Subbarâya Sâstri with his innovations made in the kriti format by introducing sañgatis svarâs sâhitya
and madhyamakâla sâhityas in a single kriti had attempted to elevate the kriti format suggested by Úyâmâ
Sâstri. Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri’s kritis are simple yet he had made innovations in his varòâs and also adopted the
anga ‘anubandha’ which would have become absolute during his period.
In the choice of ragas there are some ragas that commonly occur in the songs of Úyâmâ Sâstri,
Subbarâya Sâstri and Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri. Many of the ragas chosen by Subbarâya Sâstri and Aòòâsvâmi
Sâstri are the other janyas of melas handled by Úyâmâ Sâstri. In the treatment of tâïa Úyâmâ Sâstri’s style
in âdi and câpu tâïa compositions are revealed in the medium, in the slow tempo, less number of words in
tâïa avarta pauses occurring in different places in order to control the flow of rhythm and the different
usages of the câpu tâïa. Though Subbarâya Sâstri had composed in câpu tâïa he has not employed long
karvais with sparse use of syllables of text as found in the song of Úyâmâ Sâstri. Profusion of words with
less karvai are found in his compositions. The kritis in âdi tâïa of Subbarâya Sâstri reflect the rhythmic gait
of Úyâmâ Sâstri’s compositions in slow medium tempo but Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri’s compositions in both âdi
and rûpakam are mostly in madhyamakâla . Thus the findings reveal that the composers who come in the
line of disciples of Úyâmâ Sâstri have by and large followed his style, carried it further and at the same time
reveal some deviation.
Ayyar, A.Sundaram, Úyâmâ Sâstri Kirtanamala, 3rd Ed., Madras: Music Publishers, 1988.
Ayyar, Mudikondan Venkatarama and B.Krishnamurthy, Rare Compositions of Patnam Subramanya Iyer
and Ramnad Srinivasa Iyengar and Others, 2nd Ed., Madras: Music Academy, 1972.
Ayyangar Ranga Ramanuja, Kritimanimalai, Vol.4, Madras: Sabarmati, 1947.
Ayyangar K.V.Srinivasa, Sangita Rasarnavam, Chennai :Âdi & Co., 1925.
… Sangita Sudhambudhi, Chennai: Âdi & Co., 1929.
… Âdi Sangita Ratnavali, Chennai: Âdi & Co., 1977.
Basavappa, Vina, Ganavidyavinodini, Vavilla Ramasvami Sâstri & Sons 1915.
Danielou Alain, A Catalogue of recorded Classical and Trâditional Indian Music, Pub. UNESCO.
Dhandapani, M.M. and D.Pattammal – Ragapravaham, Chennai: Danya Kumar Press, 1985.
Diksitar, Subbarama, Prathamabhyasapustakamu, Madras: Music Academy, 1905.
…. Sangita Sampradaya Pradarsini, Vol.I, III, V, Trans. Ayyar Sundaram, B. and S.Ramanathan, Madras:
Music Academy, 1963.
Kinnear S.Michel, the Gramophone Company’s first Indian recordings, 1889-1908, Bombay, Popular
Prakasan, 1994.
Mudaliyar, Cidananda – Sangita Sarvartha Sara Sangrahamu, 1917.
Naidu, Munusvami - Sangita Sudha Sangrahamu, 1909.
Naidu, Venkatasvami, Sangita Vidya Darpanam, 1910.
Parthasarathy, N.C. and Dwaraka Parthasarathy, Úyâmâ Sâstri Krutulu, Madras: Sangita kala Sala
Publications, 1970.
Parthasarathy, T.S., Úyâmâ Sâstri Krutulu, 2nd Ed., Machillipatnam: Triveni Publishers, 1976.
Prema Dr.C.R., A Study on Úyâmâ Sâstri and his compositions, M.A. Diss., Department of Music,
Madras : University of Madras, 1983.
Pillai K.P.Kittappa and K.P.Sivanandam Brothers, Ponniah Manimalai, Tanjore: Darpana , 1961.
Pillai Ponniah (Late), Tanjai Perudayan Perisai, Ed. K.P.Kittappa and K.P.Sivananda, Madras: Ponniah
Nilayam, 1964.
Ramanathan, S., Úyâmâ Sâstrigalin Ariya Uruppâdigal, Triplicane: Kaïaimgal Isai Kalluri Publications,
Ramavarma, Svati Tirunal, Muhanaprasaantyaprasavyavastha, Madras: The Music Academy, 1985.
Rao, T.K., Govinda, Compositions of Úyâmâ Sâstri Subbarâya Sâstri and Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri, Chennai:
Ganamandir Publications, 1997.
… Varòâmanjari, 2nd Ed., Chennai: Ganamandir Publications, 1981.
Reetha Dr.C.K., Pathantaras in the compositions of musical trinity, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Music,
Madras: University of Madras, 1987.
Sambamurthy, P., Great Composers, Madras: Liberty Press, 1962.
… Úyâmâ Sâstri and Other famous figures of South Indian Music, Madras: Indian Music Publishing
House, 1924.
… South Indian Music II, 7th Ed., Madras: Indian Music Publishing House, 1992.
… South Indian Music IV, Madras: Indian Music Publishing House, 1973.
… South Indian Music V, 5th Ed., Madras: Indian Music Publishing House, 1990.
… South Indian Music VI, Madras: Indian Music Publishing House, 1969.
… Practical Course in Carnatic Music, Vol.3, Madras: Indian Music Publishing House, 1982.
Sankaramurthy, M.R., Úyâmâ Sâstri Kritigalu, Bangalore: Guruguha Gana Nilayam, 1970.
Sâstri, Venkatesa, Ganamrtamu, 1893.
Seetha, Dr. S., Tanjore as a seat of Music, Madras: University of Madras, 1981.
Setti Pammi Arunacala, Gayaka Gayanijana Parijatham, 1903.
Singaracharlu Brothers, Taccur, Gayakalocanam, Chennai: Pushpartha Chetti and Company, 1902.
…, Gayaka Siddhanjanamu, 2nd Ed., Chennai: Kalaratna Printing Press, 1905.
…, Sangita Kalanidhi, Chennai: Kalaratna Printing Press, 1912.
…, Gayaka Parijatham, Chennai: Srilekha Printing Press, 1927.
Thyagaraja, T.M., Isaimalarkottu, Tanjore: Rasikapriya, 1974.
Vidya Shankar, Úyâmâ Sâstri, Delhi: National Book Trust, 1970.
…, Kritis of Úyâmâ Sâstri and Subbarâya Sâstri, Part I, pub, C.S.Iyer, Madras: 1947.
…, Kritis of Úyâmâ Sâstri and Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri, Part II, pub, C.S.Iyer, Madras: 1947.
…, Kritis of Úyâmâ Sâstri, Part III, pub, C.S.Iyer, Madras: 1947.
…, Úyâmâ Sâstri Compositions, 3rd Ed., pub, Parampara, Madras: 1989.
…, Subbarâya Sâstri and Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri’s Compositions, pub, Parampara, Madras: 1995.
Visvanathan, Gharbhapuri Kirtanas, Madras Music Academy, 1968.
Vedavalli, Dr.M.B, and Mr.Sriman Narayanan, Musical Compositions in Audio Cassettes Carnatic music
– vocal, An Alphabetical Index, Madras: Srivari Publications.
Vijayalakshmi, K., Ragamalika, M.A. Diss. Department of Music, Madras: University of Madras, 1978.
JMA – Úyâmâ Sâstri Bibliography, Madras: The Music Academy, 1977.
Úyâmâ Sâstri by Dr.V.Raghavan.
Music Master Pieces – Navaratnamalika of Úyâmâ Sâstri by S.Vidya.
Úyâmâ Sâstri, Krishnamachari, T.T.
Ragas in Úyâmâ Sâstri’s Compositions, Vidya Shankar.
JMA, 1983, Ritha, Dr. C.K. Aòòâsvâmi Sâstri and His Compositions, Vol.LIV, Madras: The Music
Academy, 1983.
JMA, 1982, Tyagarajan T.M., Lecturer Demonstration on the compositions of Tiruvarur Ramaswami Pillai.
Ramanathan, Dr.N. Musical aspects in the svarâsjatis of Úyâmâ Sâstri, SV Trust, Chennai: Music Academy,
Úyâmâ Sâstri II, Handwritten Notebook – 1 & 2, 1932 to 1942.
Sampradaya - Mylapore, Chennai-4.
T.Brinda - Cassette No.0431 side B
Ramaravi - Cassette No.0408 and 0409
Vidya Shankar - Cassette No.072 and 073
Saraswathy Vaggeyakara Trust : Chennai
a. R.Vedavalli - Recorded on 26.4.87
b. Charmuathy Ramachandran - Recorded on 26.4.87
c. B.V.Raman & B.V.Lakshmanan - Recorded on 16.4.91
d. D.K.Jayaraman - Recorded on 26.4.87
e. S.Sowmya - Recorded on 16.5.91
f. Rajkumar Bharathy - Recorded on 9.10.94
g. Bombay Sisters - Recorded on 9.10.94
h. Subramaniyam, T.R. - Recorded on 9.10.94
Private Collections
a. Dr.C.K.Ritha Rajan I-Úyâmâ Sâstri’s Compositions -23.3.95
b. Dr.C.K.Ritha Rajan II-Subbarâya Sâstri’s Compositions -23.3.95
c. S.Rajam -Úyâmâ Sâstri & Subbarâya Sâstri’s Compositions – 28.5.96
d. S.V.Parthasarathy -Úyâmâ Sâstri’s Compositions– 28.5.95
e. Pattammal – I-Collected from N.Vijayasiva – 15.7.97
f. Pattammal – II-Collected from N.Vijayasiva – 15.7.97
g. Jayaraman D.K.-Collected from N.Vijayasiva – 15.7.97
S.No. Name of the raga S.No.of Mela No.of Compositions
S.S. Su.S. A.S
1. Todi 8 4 1 -
2. Desiyatodi 8 - 1 -
3. Dhanyasi 8 1 1 -
4. Punnnagavarali 8 3 - -
5. Ahiri 8 1 - 1
6. Asaveri 8 - - -
7. Kalkada 13 1 - -
8. Saveri 15 5 - -
9. Lalita 15 1 - -
10. Paraz 15 4 - -
11. Jaganmohini 15 1 - -
12. Gouplipantu 15 3 - -
13. Sourastra 17 1 - -
14. Vasanta 17 - 1 -
15. Anandhabhairavi 20 4 - 2
16. Bhairavi 20 3 - -
17. Manji 20 1 - 1
18. Madhyamavathi 22 3 - 1
19. Sri 22 1 1 -
20. Karnatakakapi 22 1 - -
21. Abheri 22 1 - -
22. Ritigaula 22 - 1 -
23. Mukhari 22 - 1 -
24. Darbar 22 - 1 2
25. Kambhoji 28 1 - -
26. Yadukulakambhoji 28 1 1 -
27. Sahana 28 - 1 1
28. Mohanam 28 - - -
29. Natakurinji 28 1 - 1
30. Kedaragaula 28 2 - -
31. Sankarabharana 29 3 - 1
32. Bilahari 29 - - 1
33. Athana 29 - - -
34. Begada 29 3 1 -
35. Nilambari 29 1 - -
36. Arabhi 29 1 - -
37. Janaranjani 29 1 - -
38. Nata 36 1 - -
39. Varali 39 2 - -
40. Purvakalyani 53 2 - -
41. Cintamani 56 1 - 1
42. Kalyani 65 9 1 1
43. Saranga 65 - - -
44. Hamirkalyani 65 - 1
S.No. Name of the tala No.of Compositions
S.S. Su.S. A.S
1. Adi 27 7 9
2. Rupakam 9 4 2
3. Triputa 10 - -
4. Capu 14 2 -
5. Khanda jhampa 1 - -
6. Khanda ata 2 - -
7. Tisra matya 3 - -
8. Khanda matya 1 - -
9. Misra jhampa 2 - -
10. Misra laghu 3 - -
11. Khanda eka - - 2
Example 1
Transliteration of the notation of the krti ‘Emaninne’ – Mukhari of Subbaraya Sastri (Anupallavi)
as found in the book SSPS, pp.332-334.
Raga : Mukhari
Tala : Adi
1. ,,, N d D Pmpm pD| S ,,,, m m | p m G rs rmpd ||
Samaja ka . mini | i………….| am.ba .……… ||
2. pdm+ do | g R pM dp | do ||
…… do | .i………….. do ||
3. Pdppm+ do | rrmm pdN dp | do ||
…………. Do | i…………… | do ||
4. Pdppm+ do | S ,,,, sndp | mgrsrmpd ||
…………. do | i…………… | do ||
5. …………. do|S ,, srgrsndp| sndp mgrs rmpdN ||
…………. do | i…………… | do ||
6. dpmPm+ do | srgr rsNdp mpdn | do ||
…………. do | i…………… | do ||
7. Do do | srgr rssn nddp mpdp | pmmg grR s rmpdN ||
…………. do | i…………… | do ||
Example 2
Transliteration of the notation of the krti ‘Tallininnu’ – Kalyani (pallavi and anupallavi) as found in
the book SSPS (pp.322-324).
Raga : Kalyani
Tala : Misra capu
1. ,, + S, S | R R g G | , m P, M | G G r m g ||
Talli | ninunera | nam mi | nanuvina ||
2. gr + Rgr sns | do | ,, P m P| G pm rmg ||
ve do | do | nam mi| nanuvina ||
3. do | do | ,, dn SR | do ||
do | do | nam mi | do ||
4. do | do | ,,dnsr gpm | do ||
do | do | nam mi | do ||
5. do | do | ,, Ndp M | G sdpM rmg ||
do | do | nam mi | nanu… vinave ||
6. do | do | ,,gmpdnsnd p | do ||
do | do | …. nam…..mi| do ||
1. ,,, + S, S | S N s S | ,, dndn dN | dp D nN ||
Yella | lo
S + do | do | dnsn dnsn dN | do ||
S + S, sn | D n d P| ,, gmpd snnd P| g Pdp M rmg || gr|
Example 3
Cittasvara of the song Sankri in Saveri raga, Rupaka tala – Version I from HW (p.35)
R ,, ,,,, R ,, || ,, R gsrs ndpd ||
S ,, ,,,, S ,, || ,, R rgrs ndpd ||
rsrm, grs rmpd || pmpd , ppm pds ||
rgrg rsnd pmpd || rSr sndp mgrs ||
Version II from SSKN(p.78) Tisra gati
R ;; ;; R ; Rgs rsnd pd | S;;; S ; + ; srg rsndpd ||
rsr Mg rs rm pd pm pdp pm pdsr | g R grs ndp pdr | S, rsndpM gr ||
Example 4
Raga : Mukhari
Tala : Adi
m g G grR g r s ndpm | p d s n d P |
Vara kan cipura laya va sini Sri | parade vadane |
d m P p m g r | gs+
dukuma raru danam | ma (Rakendu)
Example 5
Raga : Begada
Tala : Rupakam
n s r s m m r s r n d P | rs P d M R S ||
pankaja sambhava sannuta | pa …. lincu kamaksi ||
n d p m p g r s n s G | r g m p ddps n s r s |
munumo konibrocinadala | lanucala vini vacciti |
n s r s m m r s n n d p | r s S p d p m R s ||
vinuma ganama ninunam | minava danara ksi mpa ||
Raga : Varali
Tala : Misracapu
(Version I KMM, p.77)
; ; G ; M ; P | ; M G R G ; M ||
Na . ma . na | vivinude vi ||
; N; D; N D | M G M ; N D ; ||
ni ve gati | yaninam mina ||
P M; ; G ; M | D ; R S; N S ||
nu ma . . yamma | ve ga me karu ||
D N; D P ; M | d M G, R, s ; R ||
naju davam ma | banga ru bomma ||
Version II (SSC, p.117))
P , ; d p | m g r GM | D, N d m | g r s g r G ||
Na . mana | vivinide vi | ni ve gati | yani namina
m P;; m d n |G r G s r | nS n d p m | p P m G R ||
nu ma yamma |ve game karu |naju de vamma |bangaru bomma

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